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Intro to Anatomy

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lynn hatzikostantis

on 23 September 2016

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Transcript of Intro to Anatomy

Sulcus - a shallow furrow on the surface of the brain separating adjacent convolutions
Trochanter - a rough prominence or process at the upper part of the femur
Line - the line of union in an immovable articulation (as between the bones of the skull
Crest - the thick curved upper border of a bone
Sympathetic nervous system
allow body to function under stress
fight or flight - norepinephrine

Parasympathetic nervous system
controls vegetative functions
feed/breed or rest/repose
constant opposition to sympathetic system
Responsible for control of involuntary or visceral bodily functions
Cardiovascular
Respiratory
Digestive
Urinary
reproductive functions
Key role in the bodies response to stress

2 parts: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Autonomic Nervous System

Spinal Cord
Begins at the Foramen Magnum
Traffics assending and descending impulses
Source for motor control for muscles below the head
Receiver of sensory information below the head
Forebrain: Cerebrum
Memory, imagination, communication, reason
80% of Brain’s Mass
2 hemispheres: Left – speech, language, calculation & Right – spaital abilities, facial recognition, & more
Midbrain
Holds several small organs of the limbic system
Thalamus, hypothalamus: control the autonomic nervous system (breathing, heartrate, anything that is involuntary)
Hindbrain
Brain Stem: sends and receives all information from the body
Anatomy of the Brain & Function
NERVOUS SYSTEM

2 types of Muscle Tissue
Fast Twitch
Generate explosive amounts of force for short period of time
Slow Twitch
Puts out Lower levels of energy for a longer period of time
Muscular System
Condyle - an articular prominence of a bone
Epicondyle - any of several prominences on the distal part of a long bone serving for the attachment of muscles and ligaments
Fossa - an anatomical pit, groove, or depression
Foramen - a small opening, perforation, or orifice
Spine - a pointed prominence or process
Process - a prominent or projecting part of an organism or organic structure
Tubercle - a small knobby prominence
Tuberosity - a rounded prominence ; especially : a large prominence on a bone usually serving for the attachment of muscles or ligaments
Long Bones
Have a body and 2 expanded ends
Found in limbs
Short Bones
No long axis
Found in ankle and wrist
Flat
Ribs
Sternum
Bones of Cranium
Irregular
Vertebrae
Scapulae
Pelvis
facial
Skeletal System: Bone Classification
Peripheral Nervous System
Bundles of sensory and motor nerves radiating from brain and spinal cord
SPINAL NERVES: branches are called Peripheral Nerves
Motor control to skeletal muscles
Sensory control
Cranial Nerves
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, cocygeal
Every second you have 1 million new neurons
Every second you lose 1 millinon neurons
Neurons account for 2% of your body weight
Consume 25% of your body’s energy
During your first your of life, neurons consumed 60% of your body’s energy
Brain stops growing at age 20…never stops forming new circuits
Brain – 3 pound lump of wrinkled tissue 85% water
Fun Facts about the Nervous System
Spine
Process
Tubercle
Tuberosity
Fossa
Foramen
Sulcus
Trochanter
Line
Crest
Condyle
Epicondyle
Skeletal System Vocabulary


Hemopoiesis - bones are metabolically active
Mineral Reservoir (Calcium & Phosporus)
Produce blood cells
Protection - brain, nerves, blood vessels, heart, lungs
Movement - muscle tendon attachment = ability to move
Skeletal System Functions
Brain
3 parts:
ForeBrain
Midbrain
Hindbrain

NERVES & NEURONS
Nervous System
POSTERIOR VIEW
Occipitalis
Deltoid
Trapezius
Latissimus Dorsi
Triceps
Gluteus Maximus
Hamstrings
Gastrocnemius
Posterior Muscles
ANTERIOR VIEW

Frontalis
Deltoid
Pectoralis Major
Biceps
Rectus Abdominus
Linea Alba
Iliopsoas
Quadriceps
Tibialis Anterior
Muscles of the Body
Function = Movement (various types) & Supprt
Muscles usually work in pairs or groups
Prime Mover & Anatgonist
Muscle are made up of a bundle of fibers
Fibers are usually thinner than human hair
The fibers alter in size, thick and thin, giving muscles a striped appearance
Muscular System

206 Bones
Axial
Skull, Vertebral Column, Sternum, Ribs
Appendicular
Bones of limbs and their appropriate girdles
Skeletal System
Skeletal
Articular
Muscular
Nervous
Cardiovascular
Respiratory
Digestive
Urogenital
Endocrine
Lymphatic
Integumentary
Body Systems
Location
Sports Medicine
HUMAN ANATOMY
Epicondyle
Condyle
Crest
Trochanter
Foramen
Fossa
Tuberosity
Process
Spine
Line
Sulcus
Tubercle

Pumping blood throughout the body
Moving the skeletal system
Passing food through the digestive system
Contractile Cells
Functions
What types of cells are found in the muscle tissue? How are they specialized to carry out their function?
From bones
calcium
Electrolytes
Glucose
Remove metabolic wastes
Oxygen
High energy needs
Blood Supply
What do contractile cells need to carry out their function?
Contractile proteins: Proteins of the cytoskeleton involved in contraction (shortening) of muscle cells
Muscle: What are contractile proteins? How can we classify muscle tissue?
Randomized pattern of contractile proteins

Cannot see microscopically

Weaker contractions
Uniform arrangement of contractile proteins

Can see microscopically

Stronger Contractions
Non-Striated
Appearance
Involuntary
Voluntary
Contract without conscious control
Jobs that are automatic or in conjunction with other organ systems
Large degree of control
Some unconsciously (breathing)
Some contractions are intentional
Voluntary or Involuntary
Make up the heart

Striated

Connected by intercalated disks

Involuntary
Large cells with distinct striations

Strong directional contractions

Attach to bones and joints that produces body movement

Most are voluntary
Spindle or teardrop cells

Fibers not visible

Weak contractions that last a long time

Linings of BVs
Tubular organs

Most involuntary
Smooth
Skeletal
Cardiac
Location
Organization of (skeletal) muscle
Skeletal muscle fibers located in muscles
Entire muscle surrounded by epimysium, a CT layer
Subdivided into fiber bundles called fascicles (fasciculi)
Fascilcles surrounded by perimysium, also CT
Another look…
Usually connected to 2 or more bones, or skin
Origin: immovable attachment point.
Insertion: connects a muscle to the body part it moves
Distinguish between a muscle’s origin and insertion
The arrangement of the muscle fibers and the overall muscle shape.
How they’re attached to a certain parts of the body determines their function.
What determines a muscle’s morphology?
Gross Muscle Cell Types/Terms
Origin: immovable
Insertion: movable
Shortening of muscle brings the insertion closer to the origin.
For this to happen, neural stimulation must reach a certain threshold, or level
Skeletal Muscle Action
Categories of Muscle Action
Another way to define muscle action
Isotonic: muscle is actively shortening or lengthening.
Lifting/lowering weights
Isometric: muscle remains steady in length, undergoing indistinguishable pulses of shortening and lengthening
Pushing against something too heavy to move
Isotonic or Isometric?
*specialized cell membrane (cytoskeleton) that permits them to change shape
*allows for shortening (contraction)
*laid out as sheets of muscle tissue that coordinate together to contract
appearance
location
voluntary or involuntary
Striated
WHERE ARE MY MUSCLES?
Surrounding Epimysium is the FASCIA
Anatomical Position
erect stance
arms at sides
palms forward

Body is divided into 3 Planes
Common Medical Directional Terms
Superficial - close to surface
Deep - further away from surface
Cranial - toward head (superior)
Caudal - toward feet (inferior)
palmar/plantar - palm or bottom of foot
Dorsal - top of hand and foot

MIDLINE - A line directly down the center of the body or anatomical structure
Anterior
Posterior
Medial
Lateral
Proximal
Distal
Superior
Inferior
Palmar
Plantar
Dorsal
Ventral
Caudal
Cranial

POST IT LABELS
Body Tissues
BODY TISSUES
Integumentary System: SKIN
Epidermis - most superficial
Dermis - thicker layer
Hypodermis - not technically skin
connects skin to bone and muscle
referred to subcutaneous layer i.e fat storage (50%)
Skin has GIRTH - ability to stretch
Example - around muscle from strength training - stretch marks
BODY TISSUE TYPE : BONES
epiphysis - growth plate
Classification of Tissues
Cartilage
Tendon
Ligaments
joins structures
absorb shock
permit smooth movement
attach muscle to bone
transmit force of muscle on bone
connects bones to form joints
Types of Joints
Diathrodial
Diarthrodial Joints
aka Synovial Joints
Joint Capsule - ligament surrounds entire joint
Synovial Membrane - lining on inside of capsule
Hyaline Cartilage - thin layer of cushioning at ends of bones
Ligaments
Components:
HINGE JOINTS
uni-directional
move back and forth like a door
Multiaxial Joints
joints that can move in multiple directions

"Ball and Socket Joints"
Amphiarhrodial Joints
cartilage attaches two bones together
cartilaginous joints
Synarthrodial Joints - Fibrous Joints
tough connective tissue
immoveable joints
Your Skin is the largest organ in your body:
True or False
Every Person's Skin
Contains the same amount of Melanin.
True or False?
Skin represents 50%
of your body weight.
True or False?
If the skin of an average adult was peeled off and laid flat it would average 5 square meters
True or False?
The thickest skin on your body is your scalp.
True or False?
The thinnest skin on your body is your eyelids.
True or False
The skin is made up of 7 layers.
True or False?
Every 24 hours your skin sheds a layer of dead skin.
True or False?
90% of household dust is made up of dead human skin cells.
true or false?
A postage stamp size area on your skin contains 650 sweat glands
True or False?
True
False
False - 15%
False - .9m
squared
False -
palms & Feet
3mm
True & 94 oil
glands & 65
hair follicles
True - 1mm
False - 3 layers - Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous
TRUE
TRUE - that's sooo disgusting
Function of Integumentary System

*first line of defense against external forces
*keeps bodily fluids in
*helps regulate body temperature
*secretes waste/oils
Sebaceous Glands
Sebaceous glands secrete (produce) an oily substance called sebum onto the hair and skin that helps
keep the skin moist. During puberty the glands enlarge and produce more sebum. Hair follicles may
become blocked with dead skin cells and dirt, slowing the flow of sebum to the skin’s surface. If infected
by bacteria, damage to the surrounding tissue may result in inflammation (swelling) of a small area of skin
causing a pimple to form.
Sweat Glands
Sweat secretion plays an important role in keeping the body’s temperature constant. During strenuous
exercise or when the outside temperature is high, sweat secretion increases. As the sweat evaporates
(disappears), heat is taken away from the body and it cools down. During puberty, these glands enlarge,
resulting in an increased production of sweat.
Hair Follicle
Cells of the epidermis also penetrate (enter) down into the dermis in the form of a tube, to form the hair
follicle. Hair is formed from special cells at the bottom of the follicle. Only a few areas of the body are
hairless – the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet and the lips.
Erector Pili Muscles
Erector pili muscles contract (shorten) in response to cold or emotional stimuli pulling the hair into an
upright position. This raises the skin around the hair, giving the skin the appearance of ‘goose bumps’.
Blood Vessels
Blood vessels supply oxygen and nutrients to the epidermis. They carry white blood cells to help fight
infection. Blood vessels are also involved in temperature control. If the body needs to cool down, the
blood supply is increased so that heat will be lost from the surface of the skin. This is why your face goes
red when you are hot. When the body needs to heat up, the blood supply is decreased so that less heat
will be lost.
Nerve Endings
Nerve endings in the skin are associated with different sense organs to detect touch, temperature,
pressure (force), itching and pain. For instance, fingertips and lips are very sensitive as the skin in these
areas has many nerves and nerve endings.
Fascia - surrounds muscle tissue
FASCIOTOMY
Joint - The Connecting of 2 or more Bones
Articular System
Connective Tissue

Ligament - connects bone to bone
Tendon - connects muscle to bone
Cartilage - cushioning tissue on the ends of bones or between bones in joints
Let's Look at this closer...
Functions:
-allow motion
-bear weight
-provide stability
-lubricate the joint and nourish
the cartilage (Synovial fluid)
Damage to Cartilage
in Synovial Joints can
lead to...?
Diarthrodial/Synovial Joints
-freely moveable
-contain cartilage &
synovial membrane
Amphiarthrodial/cartilganeous Joints
- attach bones together by cartilage
- slightly movealbe
Synarthrodial/fibrous Joints
- immovable
-tough connective tissue
Full transcript