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Relationships Between Educational Outcomes and Poverty

PTEC 2012. Visualizations of world, US, and US state-level educational data, exploring the connection between poverty and educational outcomes.

Michael Marder

on 11 September 2012

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Transcript of Relationships Between Educational Outcomes and Poverty

International Educational Data PISA--Programme for International Student Assessment Among 30 developed countries, the United States is ranked twenty-fifth in math and twenty-first in science.
-- Davis Guggenheim (2010), Waiting for Superman United States Educational Data You might have heard that US test scores are flatlining I believe that what is wrong with our schools in this nation is that they have become unionized in the worst possible way....This unionization and lifetime employment of K-12 teachers is off-the-charts crazy
-- Steve Jobs, Austin Texas, Feb 16, 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Charter Schools In state after state, charter high schools are worse or no better on average than regular public schools. Even the best do not overcome the influence of poverty. Texas California Florida New Jersey New York What about charter schools? Don't they provide many families their best chance of escaping failing public schools? Watch 8th grade mathematics scores flatline here from 2000 to 2011 And you might have heard that unions are a major part of the problem Texas Educational Data Relationships Between Educational Outcomes and Poverty Michael Marder, Co-Director of UTeach and Professor of Physics
The University of Texas at Austin Poverty is no excuse for low educational achievement Consequences of Inaction All schools are held accountable Student Flow Plots Physics Students, China and US (Bao et al, Science 2009) You might have heard It's true for college freshmen in physics And it's true for data from PISA But the story looks different when countries are arranged by levels of child poverty (UNICEF, 2009) There is no connection between whether teachers have collective bargaining rights and student test scores Lesson 2: Texas' Student Success Initiative raised scores for tens of thousands of low-performing low-income students and scores stayed up for years Texas high poverty high schools provide very poor odds of academic success. No exceptions...yet. But few are aware that Texas has two separate systems with different standards Texas Charters California Charters Florida Charters New Jersey Charters How can the US compete if our schools are not up to par? Other countries educate their citizens K-16
Bring them here for graduate school or temporary work
Hire the best From Science and Engineering Indicators, 2012 By educating our technical workforce for free Nothing Makes sense in Education Except in the Light of Poverty What about graduation rates? Average Score Change All better-off students who scored 60%-70% on math TAKS in spring 2005. The importance of foreign-born scientists and engineers to the S&E enterprise in the United States is great.

25% of all college-educated workers in S&E occupations in 2009 were foreign born

42% of doctorate holders in S&E occupations.

The number of temporary work visas issued to high-skilled workers increased steadily until the economic downturn of 2009 and then fell rapidly

155,000 H1B visas issued in 2007, down to 118,000 in 2010

Over 2/3 of H-1B visas were issued for S&E occupations

Asian citizens made up three-quarters of all H-1B visa recipients. Interaction of ethnic group and poverty There is no doubt that poverty presents real challenges....But even in the toughest of neighborhoods and circumstances, children excel when the right adults are doing the right things for them.
--Michelle Rhee (2010), Waiting for Superman A way to display tens of millions of student test scores Lesson 1: The gap between low-income and better-off students expands fastest at 6th and 9th grades. So why do we hear that costs are doubling and scores are flatlining? Scores of well-off and low-income students have risen in almost every state since 2000. What do data say is most important? PISA Mathematics Score, 2009 Child Poverty after Taxes and Transfers Competitiveness will only benefit US citizens if it includes investing in US citizens Public schools actually can raise student scores quickly on a large scale. Conventional Wisdom United States, 0-10% Free Lunch United States, 10-25% Free Lunch United States, 25-50% Free Lunch United States, 50-75% Free Lunch United States, 75-100% Free Lunch UTeach Student Achievement in Light of Poverty What about graduation rates? http://bitly.com/zJuvju?r=bb Class of 2010, NGA Compact http://nyti.ms/HWOkrV David Brooks, NY Times, April 19 2012
This is an unstable situation. At some point, parents are going to decide that $160,000 is too high a price if all you get is an empty credential and a fancy car-window sticker.

One part of the solution is found in three little words: value-added assessments. Colleges have to test more to find out how they’re doing. Value-Added Assessment NY Post, February 2012
Teachers who got zero ratings
Last Updated: 11:25 AM, February 25, 2012
Posted: 1:08 AM, February 25, 2012

When it comes to teaching math, she’s a zero.
Pascale Mauclair, a tenured, $75,000-a-year sixth-grade teacher in Queens, placed at the bottom of the heap of New York’s schoolteachers, according to rankings released by the Department of Education yesterday.

Mauclair got a cumulative score of zero, with a zero margin of error, for the 2009-10 school year.
Her rating was based on five years of data, indicating that DOE brass were confident she was ranked where she was supposed to be.

The score for the 37-year-old, who teaches at PS 11 Kathryn Phelan in Woodside — an “A”-rated school — was so low for each of the past five years that she got a zero cumulative score. Value Added Test Scores SMILE What does NAEP say about the relation between teacher credentials and student scores? Baseline Not Low Income: Add 25 points Major or Minor: Add 6 Points Fully Certified: Add 6 Points ...we know that having an effective teacher three years in a row can literally help us close the achievement gap for poor students and students of color --Education Trust Perturbation Theory for Student Score Changes Zeroth Order: Instruction Offered
First Order: Prior Score
Second Order: Poverty Concentration
Third Order: Teacher Characteristics
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