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Sports and Music

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Neil Kelly

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Sports and Music

Music and Sports Music and Video as Distractors for Boys with ADHD in the Classroom: Comparison with Controls, Individual Differences, and Medication Effects Three Studies
music improved productivity and was beneficial
Silent-stimulus free environment vs. musical environment Pelham, Jr., William E., Daniel A. Waschbusch, Betsy Hoza, Elizabeth M. Gnagy, Andrew R. Greiner, Susan E. Sams, Gary Vallano, Antara Majumdar, and Randy L. Carter. “Music and Video as Distractors for Boys with ADHD in the Classroom: Comparison with Controls, Individual Differences, and Medication Effects.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 39 (2011): 1085-098. Print. Biological effect of Music
Listening to music triggers same reward system associated with food, drugs, and sex within the brain
Anticipatory activation of Dopamine Biological effect of Physical Activity
Dopamine- reward system
Noradrenaline- stress system
Serotonin- regulation of mood, appetite, and sleep
Endorphins-brain's natural opiate Music and Physical Activity
Improve mood
Reward circuit
reduce stress Haka
New Zealand Rugby Tradition
Multiple forms of Haka, though "Ka Mate" is most well known
Traditional chant and dance done by the New Zealand All Blacks before every match since 1905
Expression of Passion, vigor and identity of the race of the Maori culture English Soccer
Manchester United
"Glory Glory Man United"
Sung to Battle Hymn of the Republic Marching Bands
-Pep Rallies
-Halftime Performances
-Celebratory/Motivational set pieces
"Rock and Roll" Gary Glitter
"Get Ready for This" 2 Unlimited
"Blitzkrieg Bop" The Ramones
"Seven Nation Army" The White Stripes Notre Dame Football
Notre Dame Fight Song
"Cheer, cheer for old Notre Dame"
Written in 1908 by alumni brothers John and Michael Shea
Been played at Fighting Irish sporting events since 1919 Music and Baseball
Closer and Batter songs
Each player usually has their own song when they step up to the plate
"In Da Club" 50 Cent, "Crazy Train" Ozzy Osbourne, "Hells Bells" AC/DC, "Welcome to the Jungle (Guns n Roses)
Specific Team Traditions
Boston Red Sox
"Sweet Caroline" Neil Diamond '69 pop hit
8th inning tradition and good luck charm in Fenway Park since '90s
New York Yankees
Done by grounds crew at 5th inning when it drags infield National Anthem
-Feelings of pride, unity, honor
-Played before games, meets, matches, etc.
High School
-Played after competition
Gold-medal winning team honor in Olympic Games Music in the NFL
Monday Night Football
"Are You Ready For Some Football" Hank Williams Jr.
Superbowl Half Time Show
NFL fan base vs. target audience
Does the performance really even matter?
-Effect on players
-Effect on fans in stadium
-Effect on viewers at home
*2004 scandal "The emotion created by a piece of music may be affected by memories associated with the piece, by the environment it is being played in, by the mood of the person listening and their personality, by the culture they were brought up in: by any number of factors both impossible to control and impossible to quantify." - Geetanjali Vaidya Dr. Costas Karageorghis
-Brunel University
-Research on music benifiting performancs

-"Music has innate rhythmical qualities that individuals may respond to and which can make performing seem easier by allowing for the synchronization and emulation of movement patterns to the music.” PET SCANS
Gives the ability to see and measure the emotional responses in the brain that are created by music.
Emotions are very difficult to interpret due to factors out of the experimenter's control TYPE OF MUSIC
-Musical factors (intrinsic)
-Personal factors (extrinsic) Possible Factors
Culture in which you were brought up
Mindset Music and Motivation
improvement of our assumed physical limitations by improving your psychological mindset
Higher level of motivation
reducing our perception of fatigue
focus on external stimulus (music) over internal mental and muscular fatigue Enhancing sports performance through the use of music
Music in addition to cardiovascular workout
improve overall performance Other biological findings of music
Music reduces muscular strain
increase blood flow
increase lactate clearance Rhythm response:
-High tempo, high energy tasks
-Slow rhythm, low-energy tasks

Musicality- refers to harmony and melody Cultural Impact:
-preference formed during adolescence
-differences in preferences reflect age and background Type of activity
-Strength training decrease perception of exertion Dr. Karageorghis on Cardio
-Overall, tempo should be 120 - 140 BPM-For a stroll walker, a count of 115 - 118 BPM-For a power walker the count is 137 - 139 BPM-For a runner 147 - 160 BPM
"The best workout songs have both a high BPM count and a rhythm to which you can coordinate your movements." Strength Training
"The vast majority of bodybuilders are fans of heavy metal, if not in their personal life at least in the gym," said Shawn Perine, a senior writer at Flex magazine. Loud, aggressive music, he said, "keeps you elevated, especially in between sets." Intensity of Activity
-Choose tracks with different tempi, to coincide with low-, medium-, and high-intensity training Interval Training
-Segments of music can be tailored; work time and recovery time are punctuated by music that is alternately fast and slow-This method is called segmentation
-Research shows effective for athletes (Priest & Karageorghis, 2008) Basic Selection Criteria
(a) strong, energizing rhythm
(b) positive lyrics having associations with movement
(c) rhythmic pattern well matched to movement patterns of the athletic activity
(d) uplifting melodies and harmonies (combinations of notes)
(e) associations with sport, exercise, triumph, or overcoming adversity
(f) a musical style or idiom suited to an athlete’s taste and cultural upbringing Musics Affect on the Brain The Effects of Therapeutic Instrumental Music
Performance on Endurance Level, Self-Perceived
Fatigue Level, and Self- Perceived Exertion of Inpatients in Physical Rehabilitation

-35 patients in physical rehab
-Significant differences in perceived exertion and fatigue Music, Exercise Performance, and Adherence
in Clinical Populations and in the Elderly: A Review

-20 studies were reviewed

-Increase work output
-Divert attention away from fatigue
-Serve as a stimulant for exercise
-Enhance motor skills - Music has helped elite tri-athletes in Australia increase their endurance by 15%
- music increased energy efficiency by 1-3%, meaning athletes could run further on the same amount of oxygen.
- Music distracts the mind of the physical exercise at hand, letting people work harder than without music
Memory is a mental system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers information from sensory input Environment Style
Surrounding people
Day vs. Night Affecting Mood
Encourages day dreaming
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