Transcript of Industrial Rev
This is one of Florence Nightingale's notebooks, entitled, "Notes on Nursing: What it is and What it is not," which was written in 1865. Florence Nightingale was a nurse who worked to make better methods of sanitation and shared her work, while doing so. Florence Nightingale Florence Nightingale Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing (1820-1910) brought methods of sanitation to both the battlefield during the Crimean War and hospitals in England. She once stated, "the very first requirement in a hospital is that it should do the sick no harm." With her methods, she reduced the mortality rate by 2/3rds. She also founded the first nursing school. Florence Nightingale not only made life in the Industrial Revolution safer, but also shared her information with others. Joseph Lister Joseph Lister Joseph Lister introduced the practice of sterile surgery by using antiseptics, which helped patients avoid death from disease after the surgery. Lister commonly used Carbolic Acid to sterilize wounds and protect them from infections. Lister's method brought about a cleaner, healthier, more efficient way to conduct surgeries and saved lives by doing so. Joseph Lister (1827-1912) was the surgeon who introduced new principles of cleanliness in the medical field. These methods of sanitation changed the surgical practice in the late 1800's. Amputation Amputation This is an image of surgeons amputating the leg of a man. Amputations were commonly needed as a result of war injuries and accidents. Amputations were the most common procedure for a severe limb injury in the nineteenth century. The mortality rate of amputations was extremely high before antiseptics and anesthesia, which were brought about from the Industrial Revolution. Amputations were then modified with those tools and were made a safer medical practice in the Industrial Revolution. Anesthesia This is an image of Sir James Simpson and his two co-workers attempting to discover the anesthetic properties of chloroform. Anesthetic methods truly changed the medical field during the Industrial Revolution. Anesthesia Anesthesia was a medical breakthrough in the Industrial Revolution because it gave medical workers the ability to make patients unconscious. That allowed them to perform more accurate and less painful procedures. During the 1700's and 1800's, scientists searched for the best form of anesthesia. Nitrous Oxide, which is also known as Laughing Gas, was discovered in 1772 by Joseph Priestley and first used as an anesthetic in 1845. Chloroform was discovered in 1877 by James Simpson, and quickly replaced another form of anesthesia called Ether. James Lind James Lind This is a portrait of James Lind (1716-1794), who was a Scottish doctor. Lind discovered the disease scurvy on Navy ships and found the cure for it, which was vitamin C. James Lind discovered the disease of scurvy on Naval ships. He cured the disease by doing an experiment with 12 men suffering from it and grouped them into different dietary plans. One of the groups of men had citrus in their diet, and those were the ones who improved their condition remarkably. With his data, Lind published "A Treatise of the Scurvy" in 1753 and in 1757 "An Essay on the Most Effectual Means of Preserving the Health of Seamen in the Royal Navy." Lind helped save the lives of countless Navy Seamen in Europe during the Industrial Revolution. Louis Pasteur This is an image of Louis Pasteur, was a chemist who developed The Germ Theory. This theory became the basis for understanding diseases during the Industrial Revolution. Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur discovered the Germ Theory, which was essential to understanding diseases. Pasteur saw that when milk and beer spoiled, it was because of little organisms. Pasteur then found that these organisms could be killed by quickly heating up and cooling the liquid down. He also experimented with solid food and applied what he learned about germs in liquid and foods to human diseases. This method of heating and cooling helped the people living during the Industrial Revolution because it destroyed diseases coming from food. The theory was also used in research on human diseases to help make vaccinations. Full transcript
Welcome to the Medical Exhibit of the Industrial Revolution. There were many medical breakthroughs during the Industrial Revolution, 1750-1914, and many people who spearheaded those breakthroughs. These methods decreased the mortality rate and made medical procedures in Europe more accurate and less painful. Come look at our exhibition to read more!
Amelia Marcantonio-Fields and Jenna Yorko Medical methods, amputation and anesthesia each get their own gallery rooms because they are each a medical breakthrough. Joseph Lister and Florence Nightingale are located in the same room because they both worked on sanitation and cleanliness in medical procedures. James Lind and Louis Pasteur are in the same gallery room because they worked on finding cures for human diseases and studying germs. The Industrial Technology gallery should be next to the Medical gallery because they both contain breakthroughs during the Industrial Revolution. The industrial field was growing just like the medical. Industrial Technology also caused urbanization, which lead to crowed, unsanitary, diseased cities. This lead to new methods of sanitation and medical care. The Transport and Communication gallery should also be next to the Medical gallery because these were both growing parts of the Industrial Revolution. An example of communication that appears in the Medical gallery is Florence Nightingale’s book. Her book was an important part of medicine because it added to the medical literature of the time and gave people to opportunity to learn new methods and procedures of nursing.
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Science Museum. Science Museum, London, n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2012. <http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/objects/display.aspx?id=6124>. Industrial Revolution Medicine: Gallery Layout: Industrial Technology: Transportation and Communication: Works Cited