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Korea

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by

Sherry Lai

on 29 May 2013

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Transcript of Korea

Korea Buddhism first introduced in India during 4th to 6th century BCE
Early Buddhism—influenced by Shamanist and Animistic Koreans
Development of Buddhism came from Samguk Yusa
Gogeryo first received Buddhism in 4th Century
375 BCE: Goryeo start construction of 2 temples
384 BCE: An indian monk brought buddhism to pakche, constructing 10 temples
417-458 BCE: Indian Monk spread word of Buddhism in Shilla—one of the three kingdoms of Korea
Heavy resistance of Buddhism in court of Shilla
King of Shilla quit its throne and became a monk
527 BCE-Akadone sacrificed his life due to buddhism; want to bring buddhism to the court Buddhism Three Dynasties: Silla 57-935 BCE Class notes:
General Yi-established capital of Seoul
Confucianism replace Buddhism
Science and culture flourished (example: 1402 paper currency)
1443 King Sejong created Hangul—alphabet of Korea
1592 Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Japanese invasion repelled by Admiral Yi
1864 Gojong became King (final emperor)

Podcast notes:
King Taejo was almost 60
spent his life mostly on defending and help Korea
faithful Servant
founder of Japan
Kaesong: first city of Korea
Foreign Envoys began to come (Thailand, Japan, Indonesia, Ryuku Islands)
Land Law-nobility can only have certain amount of land
Monks live off land, becoming like landowners, have worldly possessions
1391 Queen of Han died
Taejon and brother Jeonjon fights for throne, both Jeonjon's queen told him to give position to Taejon
Taejon became the new king Three Dynasties: Josoen 1932-1910 AD Three Dynasties: Goryeo 918-1392 AD Korean Alphabet: Hangul blamed Jiang for creating the chair for King Saekjeon and had it broken; imprisoned and exiled from palace 1422
agreement with Japanese solve pirate problem of island
1430 situation of zhejiang and the north had become intolerable
1440 King Saejeong ordered project addressed what the problem is
Korean Writing Hanja are classical chinese characters represent korean language
Inaccurate already in Three Kingdoms
4 years studies 2 preparation: Saejeong presented “Hangul” first native korean script to people in 1466Han—great/korea gul—great script/korean scrip
t28 new letters newly letter—want people to easily use
Hangul simple alphabets/characters of combination of vowels and others
Chui man li oppose Hangul
Hangul was used only until 19th century (Continued) Korean Alphabet: Hangul Class Notes:
a state southeastern city coastal city
first: remove tang (the chinese)
second: unified Silla
Buddhism flourishes and become significant part of culture
State sponsored:
art
architecture-"Seokguram Grotto"
temples hwangnyongsa (Monasteries -Bulguksa)
flourish art and other Silla

Podcast Notes:
Buddhism in Silla focused on moral discipline and self-sacrifice
673BCE: general kim yu shin died—given the title ‘king
668 BCE: period of unified Silla/ North south period, King Sinmun in throne
Revolt happened—silla was pushed north
land was divided into 9 provinces
Culture (2 royal classes):
bonerank system established during late 4-5th century influenced by chinese
bone rank system- system of aristocrat ranks, determined the rights in people of the society
sacred bone rank (highest of the ranks)
true bonerank (second highest of ranks) 427 King Saejeon :
spent the rest of the 420s period with domesticate administration and scholar pursuits
help farmers made taxes flexible on sliding scalesgood years taxed heavily while taxed relief given in bad seasons
with help of 2 minister published “direct farming” the book provided advice on planting, new technique of planting/farming—increased yields
New type presses invented
spent formative /years time in yangsang working with iron
intelligence noticed admin; given chance to challenge the military service exam; though lack studies of learning compare to other candidates
arrival seoul is unknown (but 1422-23 during King Saejeong’s death)
Successfully made success in astronomy
considered threat to the confucian leyoradi Class notes:
Law codified
Civil Service System introduced
developed the art and Celadon pottery
Buddhism flourishes in systems and spread throughout entire peninsula
Celadon industry flourishes (12-13 century)
13th century first in the world; first movable metal type printing press
ended with china moving back into peninsula (yuan dynasty); Mongols 1231 invaded

Podcast notes:
1918 established by emperor Taejo
Started by a king called Wang goon in the year 914
Born in a wealthy family
Famous for getting rich by trading in Yellow Sea
Start ruling in 918, titled the "first king of Koryo"
Had 6 queens and 23 official ladies Three Kingdoms of Korea *Feudalism—a king that gets all its powers from the aristocrats
sources relied on:
Samguk Sagi-history
Samguk Yusa collection of biography and folk tales
King Tejo:
the last Koryo king to be succeeded by a brother instead of son
ruled for 93 years
165 Sinde banished by chade and brought back from exile to take the throne
146 Chade took over throne
169-172 Army invade during Chade's rule
King Chande formed alliances with Mongolian Nomads, raided Han chinese territory in retaliation
179 King Goguchian ruled
182 the Han chinese invaded, led by chinese governor of LieDong peninsula
184 Han regrouped and launched another invasion; faced interval revolt called Yellow turban rebellion—massive rebellion led to million deaths
191 A copied of chinese system governed Koryo
King Goguchian died, transferred throne to younger son Sensang
Sensang defeated rebellion Three Kingdoms of Korea (continued) 210 Sensang moved capital to Hwando fortress
220 Han dynasty completely collasped
Wei was very powerful in China, though killed and murdered by General Suyu
243 Dong Choing named his son as crown prince
255 Dong Chiong signed Peace treaty
270 Dong Chiong got ill and died
280 Massive group of nomadic people attacked northern Koryo
285 Tribes of nomadic people stormed through Kingdom of Buyo
Kingdom of Buyo located to the north of Koryo
King of Buyo killed himself; the whole royal court fled
Jin, the new dynasty help defeat nomadic people to restore the royal family of Buyo
316 Court of Buyo fled to Koryo Geography, Buddhism,
Korean Alphabet-Hangul, Three Kingdoms,
Three Dynasties (Silla, Josoen, Goryeo), Japanese Colonial Rule, Annexation,
Post world war 2, Korean War, Divided Korea Annexation of Korea 1910 Annexation: to add territory to its own land
Between Japan and Korea
Initiated by making loans to Korea and have Japanese officials serve in Korean departments for financial and imperial cause
Korean government fell down in 1908
May 1907 resist annexation by:
threaten Korea for war
Persuade Kojong to give up his throne to his simple-minded son
Korea was forced to sign treaty
August 22nd, 1910 Japanese-Korean Annexation treaty signed Korean War 1950-53 Phase 1: north korea took over almost all of the peninsula
June 25, 1950:
North Korea invades across the 38th parallel ending hope of unification
June 30 to September 1950 :
United nations rejected unification,
protects and support south korea
pushes to the Busan Perimeter

phase 2: United Nation defend and pushes north korea back to the 38th parallel
September 15 to 26, 1950:
Dowglas Macarthur led the Inchon Invasion
Busan troops broke out and pushed north
Liberated Seoul
November 24th controlled 2/3 of N. Korea

phase 3: with help of Chinese intervention 180,000 troops
November 1950:
Stop U.N. troop advances
Counter attack and force UN troops south
counter attacks back and forth between 1951-53
July 27th, 1953 cease-fire signed on 1953 (to present), ended war called "Stalemate"
North and south korea is separated on the 38 parallel (called DMZ—cannot fight in the zone) Post World War 2 Geography North Korea Map South Korea Map North Korea capital: Pyongyang
South Korea capital: Seoul
Bodies of water surrounding Korea:
- Sea of Japan/east sea: northeast of Korea Peninsula
- Yellow Sea: southwest of Korea Peninsula
- Korea Bay: northwest of Korea Peninsula

Mount Becktu:
-main mountain range
-referred to the spine of the peninsula
-highest mountains of the peninsula

-lack large lakes; only two lakes
-mostly mountainous
-east coast tides have only range 2/3 feet, best for naval activities
- North Korea—dry; south—monsoon season, main reason for wet rice cultivation being very common
-Korea flat land 20% Japanese Colonial Rule Korea was set up as a colony providing food for Japanese (military and population)
Growth in Japanese infrastructure:
Bridges
Railways
roads
Japanese factories had urban population growth
Repressive Japanese rule 1910-1945
Suppressed uprisings (violently; met with strong military response)
Outlawed language and customs, names, education —example: only allowed Japanese in schools, made Korean culture illegal,
try to exterminate Korea and its culture
All wealth went to Japan
Workers and confront woman were drafted U.S. and Russia agree to divide Korea at the end of Cold War
Separated on the 38th parallel
Korea suppose to be reunited in post war period
1945 Russia and US became the problem or “Adversarial” [social, political and economic ]
Adversarial: didn’t agree with each other, ending up creating 2 countries:
North = communist August 25th, 1948
DPRK established
President of North: Kim, Il-Sung
South = democratic August 15th, 1948
President elected on May 10th in U.N. elections
President of the South: Syngman Rhee

June 25th, 1950:
U.N resolution 82[29]
Demanded North Korea to stop invasion in the south 1950
June 25-north wants to unify by using force King Saejeon Old Hangul scripts (as illustrated, Hangul have influences of chinese characters) King Taejo 38th parallel Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase Illustrations of Korean War KOREA Divided Korea Syngman Rhee was the president of South Korea (1950-60)
First Republic-autocratic ruler until 1960 when April Revolution force him into exile
acts like a dictator
people who opposes him will not be tolerated
Abused 1949 National security laws for control
By 1960 administration grew corrupt; lots of admins were doing for their own wealth but not the government
Kim II Sun ruled 1948-1994 as dictator
country had to worship the leader
Regressive Militaristic Regime (anyone who oppose him will be executed/exile)
Outlawed Religion
Population strictly control
In South Korea May 16th 1961: Military Coup occurred-Second Republic: Park Chung Hee
1979 Park assassinated
December 12th with coup, Chun Doo Hwan takes over
1948-1970s North Korea transformed agriculture based on economy into industrial economy
1980s Korean economy stagnated
Korea during 1993: famine, 1994: floods, 1997: drought Malnutrition and starvation happened through 1990s Divided Korea (continued) South Korea 1942 start 5 year economic plan between government and industry (government support export industry)
In 1967, started the second 5 year economic plan
In 1968. North Korean spies broke into the blue house (South Korea president house) "Blue house raid" Sustained conflict between north and south
Established Demilitarized Zone on 38th parallel (DMZ)
North Korea made tunnels to go under the DMZ
Naval conflicts of North Korea
1998-2003 Kim Dae Jung (6th president, first opposition politician) won the 2000 Nobel Prize for sunshine policy/reunification
North Korea remains repressive and isolated regime/the government
“Chaebol” export led growth, had advances in industry, education, transportation. (huge companies supported by the government for exportation growth)
North Korea maintained a true “Dynasty” (true dynasty: power past down by generation)
Kim II Sun 1948-1994
Kim Sung II 1994-2011
Kim Jung Un 2011 to present
Economic Progress (1960-1995): from poorest nation (1960) in entire world to Asian Tiger—being the 7th largest economy of the world (1995)
1988 24th Olympic Games held in Seoul
Full transcript