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Tundra, GEOG. 140

lauren l

on 24 November 2015

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Transcript of Tundra

• Characterized by permafrost
• Short growing season due to brief summers
• Trees are scarce; tunturia “treeless plain”
• Smaller vegetation: grasses, mosses, dwarf shrubs, wildflowers, and lichens
• Plants and trees have adapted to the extreme environment

Where are we?
• Industrialization
• Pollution
• Fishing, hunting
• Global warming
Human Effects
Heterotrophs: lemmings, voles, caribou, arctic hares and squirrels
Birds: ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, sandpipers, terns, snow birds, and various species of gulls
Insects: mosquitoes, flies, moths, grasshoppers, blackflies and arctic bumble bees
Fish: cod, flatfish, salmon, and trout
Carnivores/Predators: arctic foxes, wolves, and polar bears
Source: University of Berkeley of Paleontology
Animals (Fauna) in the Arctic Tundra
Flora of the Tundra
(ET) Zone
Tundra: Earth's Coldest Biome
By: Sharai Garcia, Lauren Leone, Allison Elgincolin
Cold Desert/Grassland: Short and cool summers
windy: 30 - 60 mi. (48 to 97 km) per hour
Alpine Tundra: High Elevation
Little precipitation (<10 in.)
Cold Temperatures: -34° C - 12° C
(-30° F- 54° F)
Alpine Tundra
Coldest and harshest of the biomes (covers 16% of Earth's surface area)
Northern edge of Northern Hemisphere continents
Limited vegetation and animal life
Two Major Nutrients: Nitrogen (biological fixation) and Phosphorous (precipitation)
Two types: Arctic Tundra and Alpine Tundra

General Climate Features
Thank You!
Alpine Tundra Animals (Fauna)

Primary Consumers: pikas, marmots, mountain goats, sheep, elk,
Birds: grouselike birds
Insects: springtails, beetles, grasshoppers, butterflies
Secondary consumers:
Red fox
Black bear
Grizzly bear
Short-tailed weasel
Caribou and Reindeer
Source: University of Berkeley of Paleontology
Alpine Climate
Highland Climate (H)
one of the coldest biomes of the world
high altitudes (10,000 ft. +)
cold and dry throughout the year
summer temperature ranges: -12 ° C to 10 ° C
Winter: -34 ° C
Average precipitation: 30 cm/yr
Arctic Tundra Climate
cold, desert-like conditions.
average winter temperature:
-34° C (-30° F),
average summer temperature:
is 3-12° C (37-54° F)
Yearly precipitation (including melting snow): 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 inches).
northern hemisphere (North America, Russia, Scandinavia)
encircling the north pole and extending south to the coniferous forests of the taiga.
Latitude 55-70° North
S., Whitney.
Tundra Climate.
Schaffner, Brynn 2010.
Blue Planet Biomes.
web. (2002) <<http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra.htm>>
Thomas, Dr. Robert. 2004.
The Tundra Biome.
UCMP. 2004.
University of California Museum of Paleontology.
web. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/tundra.php>
National Park Services 2004.

. web. < www.nps.gov >
Tundra Food Chain
Tundra Animals (Fauna) Key Points
Most animals have the thickest and heaviest fur
The color fur is usually based on their environment. Ex. Polar Bears and lemmings
Mostly small animals than large animals
Icy cold regions are harsh environments to live in
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