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Transcript of Basic Grammar
Mr. Ricardo Garcia-Suarez
Period 6 Subordinate Word Groups
(B3, 320) Prepositional Phrases Infinitives cont... Adverbial infinitives Gerund phrases side note Verbal phrases (p.321) Participial phrase According to Webster's New World Dictionary and Thesaurus second edition, Subordinate means " having the function of a noun, adjective, or adverb within a sentence." or a dependent clause. Words that connect a noun or pronoun to another element sentence. Examples are; at, by, to ,or in. Usually begins with a preposition such as; for, from, of, on and with. They end with a noun equivalent or a noun such as: on the table, for him, by sleeping late. This (the noun and noun equivalent) is called the "Object of the preposition." "To live without health insurance is risky" Verbal phrases are verbs that do not function as the clause of a verb. Verbal phrases include: infinitives, present participles, and past participles. Adverbial infinitive phrases answer the meaning of the verb telling when, where, how, why, under what conditions. or to what degree an action occurred. Do not mistake a gerund phrase for an infinitive since they both end with -ing. A gerund phrase will always remain a noun while a present participle will remain as an adjective. "Being a weight-bearing joint, the knee is among the most often injured." Participle phrases Special note Gerund phrases
(P.322) Infinitive phrases
(P.322) Subordinate groups start out with words such as; although, that, or when. There are two different kinds of Prepositional phrases Adjectives & Adverbs Adjectives When a preposition is an adjective,(called an adjectival phrase), the prepositional phrase almost always appears right after the noun or pronoun it modifies. An example is;
"The hut had walls of mud."
"The price of the promotion was much too steep." Adverbs Prepositional adverbs (also called Adverbial phrases) usually modifies the verb and can also modify the adjectives or other adverbs.
"The salesperson skimmed over the product's real cost".
"James walked his dog on a leash." Adverbial groups periodically answer these questions: When? Where? How? Why? Under what conditions? To what degree? Such examples are; "James walked his dog how? on a leash." "Sabrina will adjust to life in Ecuador when? In time." •The boss was thrilled at their attitude. •The rock climbers arrived late at night. Verbal phrases function as a adjective, a noun, or an adverb instead of the clause of the verb. Adjective: Broken promises cannot be fixed Noun: Constant complaining becomes wearisome Adverb: Can you wait to celebrate? Verbal phrases cont... Verbal phrases are verbals that contain; objects, complements, or modifiers. Verbal phrases act as adjectives, nouns, or adverbs and are usually classified as:
3. Infinitive Appositive and Absolute phrases (P.323) Subordinate Clause Adjective clauses Present participial's always function as adjectives and can either be in the present (dreaming, asking, reaching, feeling) or in the past (such as stolen, reached, broken).
"The water drained slowly in the pipe clogged with dog hair."
Participial phrases are also moveable and can be before or far away from the noun they modify. Participial phrase behind the modified sentence "Last night we saw a play that affected us deeply, written with profound insight into the lives of immigrants." Gerund phrases are mostly built around a present participle which are verbs that end in -ing. Gerunds are used for subject, subject complements, direct subjects, or objects of a preposition.
"Waking to the buzz of the alarm clock, Freddie cursed the arrival of another Monday."
"Freddie hates waking to the buzz of the alarm clock." "Walking on the beach, Delores dodged jellyfish that had washed ashore."
"Walking on the beach is painful if jellyfish have washed ashore." Infinitive phrases usually start out with the word "to" and the base form of the verb (i.e. to call, to drink, to sleep). Infinitives can also be a noun, adjective, or adverb. They can sometimes appear to be a subject, subject complement, or direct object. "The twentieth Amendment gave women the right to vote." "Volunteers rolled up their pants to wade through the flood waters." In some sentence structure the infinitive does not always have to appear in a sentence. "Graphs and charts can help researchers [to] present complex data." Phrases that describe the noun or pronoun. Instead of modifying them, they rename it in it's noun or noun equivalent. "Bloggers, conversationalist at heart, are the online equivalent of radio talk show host." Absolute noun phrases combines a noun and a participle with an accompanying modifiers or object.
noun+participles+optional modifier(s) and/or object(s) 1."Her arms folded across her chest."
2."Our fingers scraping the leftover frosting off the plates."
3."Legs quivering" Absolute phrases Cont... Absolute phrases will modify a whole clause "Legs quivering, our old dog Gizmo dreamed of chasing squirrels." Subordinate clauses cannot stand alone as independent clauses, because they function in a sentence as an adjective, adverb, or noun and have a subject and a verb and sometimes a subject compliment. http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/subordinateclause.htm "After Amy sneezed all over the tuna salad."
"Once Adam smashed the spider." Adverb clauses Relative clauses "understood" Noun clauses Adjective clauses cont... Adjective clauses answer the question which one? or what kind of? and begins with reflective pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, or that) or sometimes relative adverbs (when, where, or why).
"The coach chose players who would benefit from intense drills."
How to identify Adjective clauses.
relative pronoun or adverb + subject + verb
relative pronoun as subject + verb In addition to introducing clauses, the relative pronoun points back to the noun that the clause modifies. "That bounced across the kitchen floor."
"Who hiccuped for seven hours afterward." They can also be arranged as in sentences (subject/verb/object or compliment.) "Sometimes it is our closest friends who disappoint us." Frequently,however, the object or complement appears first.
"They can be the very friends whom we disappoint." Adverb clauses modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs, usually answering one of these questions: When? Where? Why? How? Under what conditions? To what degree? They also begin with a subordinate conjunction (after, although, because, that, though, unless, or when). (P.325) "When the sun went down, the hikers prepared their camp." "Kate would have made the team if she hadn't broken her ankle." Sentence types Structure Their Purpose B4 there are two different types of sentences Noun Clauses functions just as a single-word noun but as a subject, a subject compound, or a direct object, of an object of a preposition. Begins with how, if, that, what, whatever,when,where,whether,which,who,whoever,whom,whomever,those,and why. "Whoever leaves the house last must double-lock the door." "Copernicus argued that the sun is the center of the universe." The subordinate word that introduced the clause may not play a role in the clause. In the last example sentences whoever is the subject of its clause, not that does not change or modify the clause. With adjectives clause, the parts of a noun clause may or may not appear in order( subject\verb\object or compliment) "Loyalty is what keeps a friendship strong." "New Mexico is where we live." Simple
Compound complex Declarative
and exclamatory Compound complex sentences Sentence Structures Compound sentences Simple sentence Complex sentence Depending on the number and types of clauses they contain sentences that are classified as, Independent
Independent clauses contain a subject and a predicate. It can stand alone or can stand alone as a sentence. Subordinate
A subordinate clause also contains a subject and a predicate, but it functions within a sentence as an adjective, an adverb, or a noun; if it cannot stand alone. Simple sentences contain one independent clause with no subordinate clauses.
"Without a passport, Eva could not visit her parents in time."
Simple sentences could contain a compound element-subject, verb, or object, but cannot contain more than one full sentence pattern.
"Spring comes on like a lion and goes out like a lamb." A compound sentence is composed of two or more independent clauses with no subordinate clauses. The independent clause are usually joined with a comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) or a semicolon. "John bought some new shoes, and he wore them to a party" A complex sentence is made up of one independent clause with one or more subordinate clauses.
"What matters most to us is a quick commute." "Although I was scared, I carefully crossed the bridge." A compound-complex sentence contains at least two independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.
"Tell the doctor how you feel and she will decide whether you can go home." B4-b sentence purpose Writers use:
Declarative sentences to make statements,
Imperative sentences issue requests or commands,
Interrogative sentences to ask questions and
Exclamatory sentences to make exclamations. Works Cited. Rozakis, Laurie E. . "Phrases: Prepositional Phrases: The Big Daddy of Phrases — Infoplease.com." Infoplease — Free Online Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, and more — Infoplease.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://www.infoplease.com/cig/grammar-style/prepositional-phrases-big-daddy-phrases.html>.,
"The Participle Phrase." Grammar Bytes! Grammar Instruction with Attitude. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/participlephrase,
"Compound Sentences." Learn American English Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Orange%20Level/O3%20Compound%20Sentences.html>.,
"complex sentence." Northwood Primary School, Olympics 2012, London Olympics 2012, olympic games resources, videoconferencing, skype, spanish resources, spanish, primary, complex sentences. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://www.northwood.org.uk/complex%20sentences.htm>. Adjective clauses can be understood in the sense that they can be written in two ways in which the meaning of the sentence is not lost. "The things [that] we cherish most are the things [that] we might lose." "The things we cherish most are the things we might lose." "The things [that] we know best are the things [that] we haven't been taught."