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Cold grasslands

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by

Charlotte Au

on 29 November 2012

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Transcript of Cold grasslands

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Biomes – Cold grasslands (Tundra) Arctic Tundra - coldest and driest of all biomes
Characteristics:
1) frost-molded landscape
2) simple vegetation structure
3) little precipitation
4) poor nutrients
5) short growing seasons
6) low biotic diversity
7) large population oscillations
- Major nutrients: nitrogen & phosphorus Two types of Tundra Arctic Tundra




Alpine Tundra Arctic tundra - Main seasons: Summer and winter

ABIOTIC FACTORS:
- growing season ranges from 50 to 60 days
- Average annual temperature: -28° C
- Yearly precipitation (including melting snow): 15 to 25 cm
- Quite windy: 48 to 97 km/hour
- No true soil is developed due to permafrost

LIMITING FACTORS:
1) Temperature
2) Nutrient availability
3) Moisture Permafrost - no deep root systems
- about 1,700 kinds of plants

AUTOTROPHS:
1) shrubs
2) sedges
3) mosses
4) lichens
5) grasses
Others: about 400 varieties of flowers Autotrophs, Heterotrophs & Decomposers HETEROTROPHS:
1) arctic wolf
2) arctic fox
3) musk oxen
4) snowy owl
5) polar bear
Food Web Latitude/Longitude = 71.2o N; 156o W - A layer of permanently frozen subsoil
- Consists of gravel and finer material
- Keeps melted snow and ice from soaking into the ground during summer
- Bogs and ponds may form, providing moisture for plants DECOMPOSERS
1) fungi
2) bacteria
3) mosses
4) lichens
5) liverworts Uses of tundra Impacts - global warming causes release of greenhouse gases (methane and CO2)
- soil melt as permafrost melts: damage buildings, roads and some human structures
- habitat erosion: oil spills and changes in drainage patterns from building roads Apline - locates in the mountain regions
- above the limit of tree growth, below the permanent snow line on high mountains
- similar vegetation to arctic tundra but more sunlight received
- growing season: 180 days

Plants:
1) tussock grasses
2) heaths
3) small-leafed shrubs

Animals:
1) mammals - goats, elk and marmots
2) birds - grouselike birds
- Subsistence hunting


- Oil exploration


- Tourism
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