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An introduction to the present perfect

Present Perfect
by

Marcello Araújo

on 5 August 2016

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Transcript of An introduction to the present perfect

An introduction to the Present Perfect
Have you ever...?
"Have you studied some languages, Ana?"
"Yes, I have studied three languages so far."
"Really? Have you ever spoken Italian?"
"Yes, I have spoken Italian several times."
"What about Mandarin?"
"No, I haven't learned it yet."
Check this example conversation:
past
present
Ana's life
(a period until now)
(she has learned three languages)
Have you ever eaten caviar? (in your life)
Have you read "Alice in Wonderland"?
- No, I haven't
Fernanda loves "Twilight". She has seen it seven times!
We use the present perfect with: "today", "this year", "this week", etc when these periods are not finished yet.
I've drunk four cups of coffee today
She hasn't had a vacation this year
Helena has studied a lot this semester
First time in your life
Arthur is 18 years old. He is learning how to drive a car:
"I'm a little nervous. It's the first time I've driven a car."
Second time, third, fourth, etc...
Leticia didn't bring her books.
That's the third time she has forgotten them
Past Simple x Present Perfect
Present Perfect
Now!
Simple Past
The past!
"I've lost my keys!"
"I lost my keys yesterday!"
"They have played tennis."
"They played tennis last week"
past
past
Present Perfect
Simple Past
"I have studied a lot."
"I studied a lot last week."
now
past
now
I studied last week
past
now!
the past!
I/You/We
Anna and Jade/They
have
haven't
Tom/He/She
The dog/It
has
hasn't
talked
in class
bought
an Ipad
been
to the vet
started
a diet
Past Participle
Present Perfect
Use the present perfect to complete the sentences
1. I'm looking for Paula. _______________ you _______________ (see) her?
2. Oh no! I _______________ (not read) the book! I have a test now!
3. Jade is having a test this afternoon. She _______________ (study) very much for it.
4. Anna knows the new teacher, but she _______________ (forgot) his name.
have
haven't read
has studied
has forgotten
Present Perfect: achievements and recent actions
Use the Present Perfect to talk about achievements and recent actions.
You can /can't see the results of the action in the present
I've studied a lot
(1)
I've learnt how to dance really well
(2)
(3)
(4)
They have redecorated the bedroom
She's changed her appearance
He has lost a lot of weight
I'm so happy I can tango now
We think it looks much more modern now
She has a new hairstyle, and she doesn't wear glasses now
He's 30 kg lighter, and much fitter now - a new man!
RECENT ACTION
PRESENT EVIDENCE
Have
Has
I/you/we/they
he/she/it
lost
weight recently?
started
a diet?
learnt
anything new today?
had
cosmetic surgery?
Yes,
Yes,
No,
No,
I/you/we/they
have
haven't
he/she/it
has
hasn't
seen
Take a look at this situation:
His shoes were dirty
He decided to clean his shoes
He has cleaned his shoes
(= his shoes are clean now)
PAST
PRESENT PERFECT
Take a look at this situation:
They were at home
They left the house
They have gone out
(= they aren't at home now)
PAST
PRESENT PERFECT
We use the present perfect for an action in the past with a result now, in the present.
"I've lost my passport."
(= I can't find it now)
"Where's Rebecca?"
"She's gone to bed."
(= she is in bed now)
"I've bought a new car."
(= I have a new car now, in the present)
"He's broken the window."
(= we can see the window destroyed now)
Look at the picture. What has happened? Use the verbs bellow.
I
have taken a shower
She
It
The frame
has closed the door
has stopped raining
has fallen down
stop
take
close
fall down
Part 5
Part 1
The
Past Participle
is used in conjunction with the auxiliary
have
Gary
has forgotten
the telephone number
They
have seen
the accident
I
have finished
this work!
Part 2
I've just...
Just = a short time ago
Why is Riley so happy?
Because she
has just got
the job.
Why is Riley so happy, again?
Because
she has just passed
in the driving test.
I've already...
already = before you expected
Everybody is doing the work, except Riley.
She
has already done
her part.
It's only 8:30 P.M..
She
has already gone
to bed. She is really tired. Her friends are working.
Yet = until now
We use yet in negative sentences and questions
The film hasn't started yet
The film hasn't finished yet
Has the film started yet?
No, not yet.
Has the film finished yet?
No, not yet.
Read the situations and write the sentences with just, already or yet.
1. Brandon goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says, 'Can I speak to Brandon?'
You say: He _____________________________ (go out)
has just gone out
2. You are going to a restaurant tonight. You make a reservation. Later, your friend says, "Should I call to reserve a table?"
You say: No, _____________________________(do it)
I have already done it
3. You are still thinking about where to travel. A friend asks, 'Where are you going to travel to?'
You say: ____________________________ (not/ decide)
I haven't decided yet
Part 3
For - We use "For" to say how long something has been happening
Example: We have been waiting for 2 hours
for two hours
two hours ago
now
For:
two hours, a long time, for a week, for 20 minutes, year, etc.
Since - We use "Since" to say how long something has been happening
from the start
Example: We have been waiting since 8 o'clock
since 8:00
8:00
now
Since:
8 o'clock, this morning, Monday, 2012, she arrived, etc.
For - it gives us the duration of time
Since - it indicates the start of a period.
Ago - before now
Cameron arrived at the market 2 hours ago.
How long has she been shopping?
She has been shopping for 2 hours.
It is 11:00 now.
She has been shopping since 9:00.
When did Katlyn and Takesa first meet?
They first met at school. A long time ago.
How long have they known each other?
They have known each other for a long time.
They have known each other since they met at school.
Exercises - use since, for ago
1. When did you last go to the cinema? ________________________ (five days)
five days ago
2. Jane arrived in China ___________________________ (three days)
3. Jane has been in China ___________________________ (three days)
three days ago
for three days
4. I have this jacket _______________________ (last year)
since last year
5. Have you known Anna _______________________ ?(a long time)
for a long time
6. Jade's parents have been married ______________________ (20 years)
7. Jade's parents have been married ______________________ (1996)
for 20 years
since 1996
Been and Gone
This is a resort in the Maldives
An island country in the Indian Ocean
These are Jack and Rose.
They want to go there.
They
have gone
to the Maldives
(They didn't return to Brazil)
They
have been
to the Maldives
(They returned to Brazil)
Been and Gone
They are on holiday.
They have gone to Italy.
The holiday is over.
They have been to Italy.
Credits:
123RF - Banco de Im
agens royalty free
English Gram
mar in Use & Essent
ial Grammar in Use
Raymond Murphy
There is a connection with the present
The action is completely over
We don't say exactly when the action happened
We say when the action happened - "last week"
Part 6
Part 4
Full transcript