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Renewable Energy Resources

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Koop24k Doop

on 11 January 2014

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Transcript of Renewable Energy Resources

Natural Gases: An American Perspective
Alternative Energy Resources
By: Yun Chao Chen
Natural Gases
As mentioned before, compressed natural gas, or CNG, is natural gas compressed to pressures of over 3,100 psi. After assessing all the alternative energy resources, I have decided that the safest and most efficient energy source iin overall terms would be CNG. CNG's narrow flammability range (only burns under the conditions of 5% to 15 percent air, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) for instance, makes it an inherently safe fuel. It is also nontoxic, so in the event of a spill or accidental release, CNG poses no threat to land or water. Lastly, CNG also disperses rapidly, minimizing ignition risk when compared to gasoline.

Hydroelectricity is the use of water to generate electricity. In the United States, water is the most common renewable source of energy. Usually based on a dam on a river, this system uses the potential energy of stored water power a generator that produces electricity. Today, this energy source powers approximately seven percent of our nation's energy demand.
Renewble Energy
According to, renewable energy resources are energy sources that can be and are continually replenished. In contrast to traditional fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas (both of which are non-renewable), renewable energy sources are non-polluting, although the devices built to harness them pose consequences for the environment. These sources of energy vary widely in their cost-effectiveness, in their availability across the United States, and in their uses, including generating electricity, powering vehicles, and providing heating, cooling, and light.

With hundreds of years of history behind it, wind power has traditionally been used to pump water or grind grain, Large, modern wind turbines, however, now mainly generate electricity, Wind power require the use of wind turbines (usually have two or three blades) that capture and utilize the energy from the wind to turn the blades and make electricity.
Geothermal power utilized the heat trapped inside the Earth to generate heat and electricity.
There are three geothermal technologies currently in use in the United States: direct-use systems, use of deep reservoirs to generate electricity, and geothermal heat pumps.
CNG is a readily available alternative like gasoline that’s made by compressing natural gas to less than 1% of its volume at standard atmospheric pressure. Consisting mostly of methane, CNG is odorless, colorless and tasteless. It's drawn from domestically drilled natural gas wells or in conjunction with crude oil production.
Conclusion: As can be seen in the details aforementioned, the use of natural gas as an alternative energy source both has its pros and cons. While natural gas is significantly more cost-effective, safer, and cleaner than its counterparts, its extraction can pose dangerous risks for the environment and wildlife. But there is one thing that we must keep in mind; sometimes, sacrifices are necessary in order to advance our society. In this case, I fully believe that the the price that we have to pay for natural gas is insignificant in comparison to the benefits that it brings us. In other words, I ardently support the use of natural gas.
How does it work?
Why is it being explored?
Are there geographical limitations?
Primary Uses of Natural Gas
Solar technologies gather the sun's light energy to provide heat, light, hot water, electricity, and even cooling, for a variety of buildings and businesses Despite the sun's practically endless potential as a source of energy, solar power provides less than 1% of U.S. energy needs. This percentage, however, is expected to increase with the development of new and more efficient solar technologies.
Wind Power
Solar Power
Natural Gas
As an alternative for coal and gasoline, CNG has a diverse application to our daily lives. However, before it can be used, several steps must be completed:
1) Harvest raw natural gas from gas wells
2) From the gas supply, collected gas passes through the inlet gas
dryer and the compression station, where it ultimately ends up in the high pressure storage vessels.
3) The processed gas can now be used
CNG, when ready, can be fed to home to supply heat and electricity, or be fed to cars for fuels. In the case of the cars, tubes connect the underground CNG storage vessels to the gas station, which then feeds CNG to a pressurized tank in the car for ready use.

After universal problems such as ozone depletion and the destruction of nature (both of which are brought on by the extraction and use of unclean fossil fuels) scientists and political leaders have reassessed our energy practices and declared natural gases (NG) as a more effective way of energy consumption. Although NG and fossil fuels are used in the same way in heating houses and running cars, NG holds much less consequences. When burned, for example, NG produces 65% less emission than coal, and 25% less that that of oil's. In comparison to other fuels, NG also provides the advantage of being nontoxic and easily dispersable. Lastly, NG is much more abundant than most fuels, making it an inherently practical energy source.
Since its discovery in the twentieth century, natural gases have provided the United states with a steady supply of energy. According to the EIA (Energy Information Administration), natural gas accounts for as much as 24 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States. In just 2012, the United States consumed an overwhelming 2,757,860 million cubic feet of CNG. Yet that's not all. With the EPA pressing for more stringent emission laws, consumption is expected to rise by over 56% of the current level by 2040.
Different Areas
of Use of CNG
As an abundant source energy, natural can be found practically
everywhere in the United States, usually in conjunction with oil reserves. As such, it may not be a surprise that the largest quantities of natural gas come from a few southwestern states: Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico. In recent years, scientists have also discovered a huge gas reserve in the North Slope region in Alaska. From these supplies, the US Natural Gas Pipeline Network carries natural gas all over the country.
In terms of the world, natural gas is found in underground rock formations near coal and oil reserves throughout Asia, Europe and Africa.
As shown above, natural gas provides for as much as 24% of the Us total energy demand. Of the total natural gas consumed, nearly a third is consumed by industry in producing products such as fertilizers and antifreeze. As runner-up, the residential sector eat up about another 24% through powering utilities such as stoves and heaters.
Natural gases are also starting be adopted by auto companies today as well. As of 2009, a total of 114,270 CNG vehicles have been recorded.

Advantages of
A) Versatile: natural gas is a versatile energy source with many applications:
-Heating, cooling, cooking, fuel for transportation, electrical generation, and varied industrial production.
B) Clean: natural gas produces up to 65 percent fewer emissions than coal
pekilowatt per hour and 25 percent fewer emissions than oil.
C) Affordable: in comparison to the price of gasoline in 2009 , natural gas is 20
percent to 30 percent more affordable.
D) Abundance: natural gas is truly a North American solution that employs
nearly 3.4 million people and provides countless other benefits through royalties and taxes.
Disadvantages of
A) Although natural gas itself is harmless to the environment, the process of drilling for gas may disrupt natural habitats and the environment,

B) Not 100% renewable (cannot always be replenished)

C) Natural gas is not emission free and still can still
contribute to greenhouse effect.
Top Six Natural Gas
1. Exxon
Average Daily Natural Gas Production: 3.9 billion cubic feet.
Revenue, 2010: $370 billion.
Reserves, 2010: 78.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (26.1 trillion in the U.S.).

2. Chesapeake Energy
Average Daily Natural Gas Production: 2.6 billion cubic feet.
Revenue, 2010: $9.4 billion.
Reserves, 2010: 14.3 trillion cubic feet of gas equivalent (10 percent of that is oil or other liquids,converted to the equivalent volume in gas).

3. Anadarko
Average Daily Natural Gas Production: 2.4 billion cubic feet.
Revenue, 2010: $11 billion.
Reserves, 2010: 320 million barrels of natural gas liquids (307 million in the U.S.), 8.1 trillion cubic feet of gas, all in the United States.

4. Devon Energy
Average Daily Natural Gas Production: 2 billion cubic feet.
Revenue, 2010: $9.9 billion.
Reserves, 2010: 479 million barrels of natural gas liquids (449 million in the U.S.), 10.3 trillion cubic feet of gas (9 trillion in the U.S.)

5. BP
Average Daily Natural Gas Production: 1.9 billion cubic feet.
Revenue, 2010: $297 billion.
Reserves, 2010: 10.7 billion barrels of oil (2.9 billion in the U.S.), 42.7 trillion cubic feet of gas (13.7 trillion in the U.S.).

6. Encana
Average Daily Natural Gas Production: 1.8 billion cubic feet.
Revenue, 2010: $8.9 billion.
Reserves, 2010: 93.3 million barrels of liquids (38.5 million in the U.S.),
13.8 trillion cubic feet of gas (7.5 trillion in the U.S.).

**According to Marcellus Drilling Facts
Involved Colleges
After researching, I found that Pennsylvania the Pennsylvania
College of Technology focuses much on natural gas majors.
Some courses include
1.Equipment manufacturing, service and repair
2. Environmental permitting
3. Water transport
Based on current figures it seems that the education
needed for a career in this field will increase
drastically at Penn College.
Natural Gas: A Political Debacle
Although the use of natural gases tends to be seen as favorable, we have to keep in mind that the process of retrieving this fuel may cause widespread destruction for the natural habitat. As such, a political debate has heated up the political air. Environmentalists and activists have devised several campaigns to stop the extraction of natural gas in US states like Alaska. Meanwhile, major fuel companies such as Exxon and BP contend in favor of natural gas, claiming that sacrifices must be made for a communal gain. In the political realm, the conflict between these two interest groups has captured the public eye, leaving this issue a national debate.
Work Cited
"Article." Renewable Energy Sources in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.

"Careers in the Natural Gas Industry Are Heating Up." Natural Gas Majors. N.p., n.d. Web.
11 Jan. 2014.

"CNGnow." .com. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.

"Five US Natural Gas Companies for an Export Boom." Resource Investor. N.p., n.d. Web.
11 Jan. 2014.

"Links." Links. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2014.

"The 10 Largest Natural Gas Drillers in the U.S. | Marcellus Drilling News." Marcellus
Drilling News. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2014

Pros and Cons
Full transcript