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Conventional and Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
Transcript of Conventional and Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
Nonconventional sources include solar power, wind power, biogas,
tidal power, and geothermal power, as well as nuclear power. CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES The word 'conventional' is defined as "not unusual or extreme; ordinary." This fits well with conventional energy sources in terms of being not unusual.
Conventional energy sources have demonstrated both positive and negative consequences. The negative effects have led us to the discovery of alternative energy sources. Traditional energy sources consist primarily of coal, petroleum and natural gas. They form from decaying plant and animal material over hundreds of thousands to millions of years. Most of these sources are burned to produce energy through power plants and automobiles. COAL Coal or 'Black Gold' contributes to about 27% of the global energy production. It is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock which is the result of the decay of remains of forests and animals a million years ago. These forest and animals remain were buried under the earth in some layers of sedimentary rock (Strata). Over the years these remains got converted into hard coal due to extreme heat and pressure conditions. China is believed to possess 40-45% of the global coal deposits , followed by USA, Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, India*, Australia, South Africa, Germany, Britain. These are some of the countries where coal deposits are found.
* These places in India have coal deposits : Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Odisha TYPES OF COAL Type Carbon Content ( % ) Peat Lignite Bituminous Anthracite 30-35 35-45 50-60 90 and more Formation of Coal PETROLEUM Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other liquid organic compounds.
The word 'Petroleum' has been derived from two latin words : 'Petra' meaning rock and 'Oleum' meaning oil. Hence, Petroleum literally means 'Rock Oil'. Petroleum is found beneath the earth in sedimentary rock stratas from where it can be extracted by oil drilling
A fossil fuel like Petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and undergo intense heat and pressure.
Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. Petroleum is mostly found in the Gulf Region of the Middle East ( Arabian Countries ) Saudi Arabia is the largest producer of Petroleum in the world, followed by Iraq, Kuwait, Iran and UAE.
In India, Petroleum is mainly found in Digboi and Mumbai High NATURAL GAS Natural Gas is another source of energy which is a naturally occuring gas mixture. It lies above the petroleum. When petroleum is extracted, the first thing to come is natural gas followed by Petroleum. Russia holds the first place in natural gas reserves followed by Iran, UAE, Saudi Arabia, USA and Venezuela. Its demand is growing around the world because of its non polluting quality, cleanliness and efficiency. HYDROPOWER THERMAL POWER Power or electricity generated by water is known as Hydropower.
This form of energy has been developed in the recent past. It is beneficial and has advantage over thermal power in some ways:
It does not cause pollution.
It is less cost effective.
It is inexhaustible and renewable.
It is safe and clean. Hydropower has higher productivity.
China has the largest amount of potential hydropower, followed by Brazil, Indonesia and Canada. India also possesses a huge potential for hydroelectricity generation.
There are two river components in India;
* Himalayan River
* Peninsular River Himalayan River components are quite useful and important in respect to hydropower.
It is so because Himalayan rivers are perennial in nature and the rivers flow vigorously.
Whereas rivers in peninsular regions are seasonal, expect few all other are less vigorous and feeble in off seasons. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES People use a number of different types of non-conventional methods to supply themselves with electricity. Producing energy is not limited to burning coal and eliciting nuclear power; forces on Earth are capable of producing extraordinary power. Man will continue to use these non-conventional energy sources to supply people around the world with their energy needs. People in the 21st century are increasingly interested in finding new and innovative ways to power their lives. Nuclear, solar, wind, biogas, tidal and geothermal energy are non-conventional energy sources that have the most practical use. NUCLEAR POWER Nuclear Power is obtained from uranium and thorium. It is less widely used as compared to the other two power sources. It contributes to about 5 per cent of the global energy production. It is harmful because radioactive elements cause diseases.
SOLAR ENERGY It is one of the important and easily accessed energy sources. The heat emitted by the sun at all times is trapped with solar photo voltaic system helps converting the solar energy into electricity for various purposes.
WIND ENERGY Wind energy is generated with the help of a windmill. It is a machine which is driven with the help of wind and a turbine which is rotated when wind starts blowing. It is one of the cheap, clean and renewable sources of energy.
BIOGAS ENERGY Biogas energy is obtained by converting cattle dung, animal and human wastes into fuel for cooking , etc. It is a clean, self-reliant and non-polluting fuel. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY It is actually related to the heat content of earth’s surface or the interior. So, this energy is trapped from the hot springs and geysers.
TIDAL ENERGY Alternate rise and fall of sea water twice a day is known as tides. These tides can be used for generating electricity.
A turbine is fixed in the coastal areas and it rotates with the ascending or descending of the water hence thereby producing electricity.
This has proved very successful in most parts of the world. Thank You This was a presentation by Alexander Thomas