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D Roo

on 3 November 2012

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FOLKTALES Fables Fairy Tales Pourquoi Tales Myths Legends (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Traditional Literature Oral stories
Passed down from generation to generation
No Identified Authors
Literature = generally short, quickly read
2-Dimentional, easily identified characters
Explicit, Limited Themes – Good vs. Evil
Unimportant Setting
Happy Ending
Maintain aspects of oral storytelling
Provide insight into the culture/heritage from which it came from CHARACTERISTICS PURPOSE Explain natural world
Communicate common fears/dreams
Understand place in universe
Transmit values and beliefs to youth
Entertainment Fables
Tall Tales
Folk Epic
Folktales SUB-GENRES Traditional/Folk Literature Short stories
narrative form
Characters: Animals with human-like qualities
Teach life lessons & morals
Ideal for younger children
ESL students EXAMPLES:
Aesop’s Fables (Pinkney, 2000)
The Fox and the Stork (told by La Fontaine)
Demi's Reflective
Fables (1988) universal appeal Oldest stories
Explain the natural order of
Presented as “factual”
often include “messages” to
guide humans
Fictional characters
Flowing language Aliki’s “The God and Goddesses of Olympus”
Moses (Fisher, 1995)
“Sun, Moon and Stars” (Hoffman)
Egyptian, Norse, Korean, Chinese… stories
Ovid's Metamorphoses Examples ages 4-8 ages 18+ Heroic deeds of historical figures
Kings, Heroes, Saints
True Historic Figures, exaggerated feats
Set time and setting
Differs from other genres
“Storyteller” feel
Characters exhibit ideal cultural traits EXAMPLES: “Robin of Sherwood”, “Young Arthur”, “Excalibur”, “Fa Mulan”, Fictitious or Actual characters
Events/feats = so unbelievable & exaggerated
Place more emphasis on national/regional characteristics than other genres
Optimistic - focus on overcoming obstacles
hope during American Pioneer-ERA Folk Epic Differ from legends in length & Complexity
Often in verse
FOCUS: single hero
often have mythological frameworks
middle-school + Aliki’s “The God and Goddesses of Olympus”
Moses (Fisher, 1995)
“Sun, Moon and Stars” (Hoffman)
Egyptian, Norse, Korean, Chinese… stories
Ovid's Metamorphoses Examples ages 4-8 ages 18+ EXAMPLES Homer's Iliad & Odyssey
Iliad = epic poem in dactylic hexameters
Setting: Trojan War, during 10-year siege of the city of Troy
King Gilgamesh High-school level Tall Tales Age Level: older Elementary - Middle School
not as serious/lengthy as legends
work with grammatical devices
hyperbolas, dialect Paul Bunyan: A Tall Tale (Kellogg, 1984)
Pecos BIll (Kellog, 1986)
Johnny Appleseed: A Tall Tale (1988)
John Henry & His Hammer (Felton, 1950) Explain how things came to be Often humorous, offer odd explanations Coyote Rides the Sun (StJohn)
Two Bear
Cubs (San Souci) overlap with Myths
"How and "Why" Stories Protagonist uses pranks & deceit to outwit stronger/larger opponent
Tricksters can possess positive or negative traits
often, they behave badly
Morals/Lessons involved
don't always prevail Trickster Characters: Raven
Spider Trickster Tales Reading Level: Great for Developing Readers
1st-2nd grade
Practice Predicting, brainstorming alternative endings, retelling the story, extracting lesson Examples: Gerald McDermott's "Zomo the Rabbit", "Coyote", "Raven"
Anansi Tales
"Tales of Uncle Remus" (Julius Lester)
"Dragon King" (2002) Examples: Includes use of magic/enchantment
Deal with universal human dilemmas
Most early tales were NOT just intended for children
many originals = gruesome
"CLASSIC" Fairytales
Charles Perrault: France

Grimm Brothers: Germany

Hans Christian Andersen: Denmark sought out German storytellers
usually middle class/aristocrat women retold tales for court entertainment Key Elements Girl (or boy) treated poorly by family
"Cinderella" = good, kind
Goodness = rewarded - magic involved
Often leaves something behind
elevated in status - loved for kind personality "Aschenputtel" - Brothers Grimm Western Europe "Cinderella" - Perrault begins with death of her mother
father takes new wife - stepmother
2 stepsisters
Hazel Twig planted at mothers grave
"Fairy Godmother": bird in tree grants wishes
Slippers - gold and silver
Stepsisters mutilation of feet - sign of aristocracy in China
Marries Prince
Birds peck out stepsisters eyes Passive Father
father takes new wife - stepmother
2 stepsisters
Rich Fabrics - "Red Velvet Suit"
Fairy Godmother
rat --> coachman; pumpkin --> carriage
Slippers - GLASS
Marries Prince
Find two lords for sisters to marry - allows them place in palace "Cinderella" Americas Asia "The Rough-face Girl" (Martin, 1998)
"Sootface: An Ojibwa Cinderella Story" (San Souci, 1997) Native American Latin American "Cendrillion: A Caribbean Cinderella" (San Souci, 1998)
"Little Gold Star: A Spanish American..." (San Souci, 2000) "Jouanah: A Hmong Cinderella" (Coburn, 1996)

"The Korean Cinderella" (Climo, 1996)

"The Golden Slipper: A Vietnamese legend" (Lum, 1994) Other Examples Lon Po Po (Young, 1989)
The Crane Wife (Yagawa, 1987)
Beauty and the Beast (Brett, 1989)
Blue Beard (Perrault)
The Little Tin Soldier (Anderson)
The Dragon Prince (Yep, 1997)
The Three Little Pigs (Marshall, 1989)
Rumpelstiltskin (Zelinsky, 1986) Read/told as fictional
Access to another reality
often incorporate Repetition References Cole, Joanna, and Jill Karla. Schwarz. Best-loved Folktales of the World. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982. Print.

Young, Terrell A. Happily Ever After: Sharing Folk Literature with Elementary and Middle School Students. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, 2004. Print.
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