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Standard 5.01

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Nicole Drevlow

on 8 April 2013

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Transcript of Standard 5.01

Programming Languages Evolution of programming languages We will go through a timeline of programming languages. These languages will include C, Cobol, Java, Basic, Pasqual, and FORTRAN. C and C++
Languages The programming language called C got its start in 1972, the first code written by Dennis Ritchie. The reason this code was developed was to create the operating system called UNIX. Its core purpose was to create fast and efficient code for the computer to run. 1972 Dennis Ritchie in 1999 1970's The C language became very popular and spread quickly throughout the 1970's. C became a popular language for programmers, and the language began to replace once-popular languages such as PL/I and ALGOL. Due to its popularity, companies began making their own languages that were nearly identical to C with only a few differences. This took place in the late 1970's and early 1980's. 1989 To solve the problem of C being copied by others, a committee was formed in 1983. This committee wanted a standard definition of C to be established so blatant copying could cease. In 1989, ANSI established a standard definition of C called ANSI C. Also, in 1983, the C++ Programming language branched off as its own separate language from C. Impact Today When UNIX was rewritten using C, this was a major step forward. Previously, operating systems had only been written using assembly language. In fact, Linux today is written using almost entirely C. Today, C++ is also an important language. It is used in popular products such as Microsoft Office, the Firefox web browser, and the Adobe PDF Reader. Here is a very simple program written in C: #include <prgm.h>

puts("a simple C program"); } Java 1991 Java was developed in 1991 by James Gosling and Patrick Naughton. Having originally been developed for enhanced digital television, this idea had to be scrapped due to Java being too advanced for the television industry at the time. Java went through a few name changes; it was originally called Oak, which was later changed to Green. It eventually went by the name Java, from Java coffee. 1995 The first version of Java, Java 1.0, was released by Sun Microsystems in 1995. Java proved to be a dependable, mostly error-free program that provided security; this caused many websites to incorporate Java into themselves. Java promised WORA (Write Once, Run Anywhere), which means that you can write the source code and be able to run the program on any device that has the Java app installed on it. This provided flexibility for users. 1998-1999 Throughout 1998-1999, Java 2 was released to the public. This version of Java had been released with different versions for running on different platforms. J2EE was a version that was aimed towards enterprise applications, whereas J2ME was made for mobile devices. 1997 In 1997, Sun Microsystems began the process of formalizing Java by getting it to be certified by standards, but they backed out of this process not long after they begun. In fact, even though you had to pay to use Java at one time, Sun Microsystems would release code for free. 2006 In 2006, Java's Java 2 extensions were renamed as Java EE, Java ME, and Java SE. In November of 2006, Sun Microsystems released a large amount of Java's code as free and open software. They did this under the GNU (General Public License). This process was finished in 2007, making the entirety of Java's code available. Today Today, Java runs on over 1.1 billion computers; many websites can't even function without Java. In fact, Java was used in the 2004 Mars Rovers. Here is a simple program written in Java: public class HelloWorld {
public static void
main(String[] args) {
System.out.printIn("This is a sample program written in Java.");
} } HTML 1991 In 1991, the first version of HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) was released: HTML 1.0. This version of HTML was a merge of these new HTML tags (such as the <href> tag) and the already existing SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language). Only twenty elements were included in HTML 1.0; thirteen of these elements are still used today. 1994 In 1994, HTML 2.0 was released and became the new standard for HTML. This new standard will last until HTML 3.2 is released. 1996 In 1996, new improvements are made to HTML; also, HTML 3.0 is released. The addition of the use of tables is introduced to better organize web pages. "Client-side Image Maps" are introduced, which allows a user to click on different areas of an image to navigate to different aspects of a web site. 1997 The first CSS W3C recommendation is introduced; the bar is set high and it would be three years before any website could conform to all of its specifications. In 1997, many arguments were had over the different attributes of HTML. HTML 3.2 was approved as the new standard for all HTML. With this standard came the removal of the <marquee> and <blink> attributes that were considered annoying and unprofessional. Also during this time was the abundant use of frames; this was a major mistake in web page construction. 1998 In 1998, HTML 4.1 is released (previously as HTML 4.0 under the codename Cougar). A major introduction is of CSS (Cascading Style Sheets); this makes it easier to customize colors, fonts, and backgrounds of a web page. 2000 In 2000, HTML and XML merged together to form XHTML. This required web pages to rewrite their code due to the non-backward compatibility. Sloppy XML code was allowed due to XML's strict standards that included correct capitalization. 2005 In 2005, Ajax is implemented into HTML used in web pages. Ajax made it easier for web pages to update and request data from cloud based applications such as email and social media. Ajax is an easier way to say: Asynchronous JavaScript+CSS+DOM+XMLHttpRequest 2008 In 2008, HTML 5 is released; this was part of a joint collaboration between Apple, Mozilla, and Opera. In 2009, XML developers have joined to further HTML5 development. HTML5 is not a standard for web pages, and it is not going to be until around 2022. Today Today, HTML is currently evolving and incorporating new attributes to better suit the needs of web site designers. Here is an example of HTML code for a table: <table height="200" width="300">
This is a table!
</table> Resources Bartels, Angela. "Internet History: HTML Code Evolution 1.0 to 5.0 [INFOGRAPHIC]." Rackspace. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. <http://www.rackspace.com/blog/internet-history-html-evolution/>. "Java logo.svg." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Java_logo.svg>. "Java (programming language)." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language)>. Anthony, Sebastian. "The evolution of computer languages (infographic)." ExtremeTech. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. <http://www.extremetech.com/computing/91572-the-evolution-of-computer-languages-infographic>. Ritchie, Dennis M. "The Development of the C Language*." cm.bell-labs. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.html>. Lévénez, Eric. "Computer Languages Timeline." Computer Languages History. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://www.levenez.com/lang/>. "C++." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%2B%2B>. "File:Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie .jpg." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dennis_MacAlistair_Ritchie_.jpg>. "Dennis Ritchie." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Ritchie >. "Brief History Of The C Programming Language." Rajkishor09.Hubpages. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://rajkishor09.hubpages.com/hub/A-Brief-History-of-the-C-Language>. "How to Program in C." rajkishor09.hubpages. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://rajkishor09.hubpages.com/hub/Your-First-C-Program >. Binary Binary code has been used for centuries; it wasn't introduced with computers, as it has existed before them. In 1884, binary was used in the Linotype machine. In 1875, binary was used in the ciphering system of Émile Baudot. This led to the ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) of the modern day. 1936-1937 Binary was used in the Konrad Zuse Z1 computer. This was the world's first programmable computer. In 1937, binary was used in the Atanasoff-Berry Computer. This one was the world's first programmable electric digital computer. Z1 Atanasoff-Berry Besides being used in computers and robots, binary is used for reading CDs. "Atanasoff-Berry Computer." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atanasoff-Berry_Computer>. "Binary Code." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Jan. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_code>. If a section of a CD is read as reflecting the laser shown onto it, it is read as a "1"; if the light is not reflected, it is read as a "0". Binary is a basic machine-level programming language that reads data by combinations of ones and zeros. For example, this might stand for an instruction: 011010 1101001 10100001 1900's Binary is a valuable language for machine level instructions. It is simple for machines to read, and higher-level programming languages can be translated into it. Today Visual Basic 1991 Microsoft Visual Basic 1.0 was released on May 20, 1991. It was available in professional and standard editions. Visual Basic combined the elements of a visual interface using graphical design and traditional programming. 1992-1993 Visual Basic 2.0 was released in the November of 1992. This version was faster and more powerful than the 1.0 version of Visual Basic (or VB). In 1993, Visual basic 3.0 was released; new tools were added to this version that included the functions of navigating through databases easier and Object Linking and Embedding. Visual Basic for Applications was released in 1993; this was designed for running in Microsoft applications such as in Microsoft Office. 1995 In 1995, Visual Basic 4 was released. This version supported Windows 95 (which was a 32-bit operating system). The Professional version of VB 4 could compile code to run on older 16-bit operating systems. Also in 1995, Visual Basic Scripting Edition was announced. This program was made to write code for web pages. A downside was that not all browsers run VB Script. 1997 Visual Basic version 5 was introduced in 1997. With this version, operating systems that ran on 16-bit systems were no longer supported by VB. There were many changes in Version 5 from version 4; in Version 5 you would be able to create customized controls and make true executables. Visual Basic version 5 was available in three different versions: Standard, Professional, and Enterprise. 1998-Today Visual Basic version 6 was released in 1998. It was released in the Microsoft package called Visual Studio 6.0. This new version included the new features of Internet features, language features, data access, controls, and more. In fact, lots of businesses and organizations are using Visual Basic 6.0 today. Mack, George. "The History of Visual Basic and BASIC on the PC." George Mack's home page. N.p., 24 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Jan. 2013. <http://dc37.dawsoncollege.qc.ca/compsci/gmack/info/VBHistory.htm>.
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