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Soil

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by

Ricardo Luna

on 17 November 2015

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Transcript of Soil

Soil
Characteristics of Soils
Soil importance
Nomenclature of inorganic compounds
Metallic oxides (metal + oxygen)
Nonmetallic oxides (anhydrides) (nonmetal + oxygen)
Binary salts (metal + diff. than oxygen)
Hydracids

Hydroxides
REACTIONS
-Parts:
Reactants and products.

-Types of reactions:
Synthesis
Decomposition
Simple sustitution
Double sustitution


Oxidation number
It is a number that represents the number of electrons that an atom is going to "bring in to play" when it forms a compound.

The nation that destroys its soil destroys itself
” Franklin D Roosevelt
What is it?

Why is so important for life?
Properties
Soil classification concerns the grouping of soils with a similar range of properties: Chemical, Physical and Biological

Types of soil are classified in two ways:

1. According to its function

2. According to the soil characteristics

We are going to focus on the first one, which includes the following:
Sandy soils

Limestone

Humus

Clay

Stony

Mixed
http://www.ecologiahoy.com/tipos-de-suelos
Classification
-Physical:


- Chemical:
Structure: particles such as sand, silt and clay aggregates, affecting aeration, water movement, conduction of heat, plant root growth and resistance to erosion.


Texture: The mineral components of soil, sand, silt and clay, determine a soil's texture. Affects soil's retention capacity for nutrients and water.
Cation exchange capacity
: measures the point to which soil can hold and exchange plant nutrient cations, importan for soil fertility.

pH
- buffering capacity
- fertilizer

Liming (soil alkalization)

Nutrients
- organic carbon
- nitrogen
- organic matter
- Biological: - nitrogen cycle
- carbon cycle
Rules
Rules to name compounds
3 types:
TYPE (n)ONE (metals Group 1,2 + NM) cation + anion IDE

TYPE (II) (Transition metals + NM) cation ( ) + anion IDE

TYPE (tri) (Both nonmetals) name prefix + name IDE
BINARY
TERTIARY
Metal oxide:
write the name of the ions
cation name
(metal): stays same
and the word of the oxygen ion:
oxide
Binary salt:
write the name of the ions
cation name
(metal): stays same.
anion name
(nonmetal): ends
IDE
Metal oxide with transition elements:
transition elements use different oxidation number.
You must check the oxidation number of the nonmetal it is bonding to.
That number goes with a roman number
Non metal oxide or Anhydride:
nonmetal name: add prefix if it has 2 or more atoms.
write the word oxide and its prefix: mono, di, tri, etc.

Group 1A : always +1
Group 2A: always +2
Halogens (7A): USUALLY -1, positive with oxygen

H: +1 with metals
-1 with nonmetals

O: usually -2
-1 in peroxide

F: always -1
The sum of oxidation numbers for a neutral compound = 0
Hydracids

1. hydric + nonmetal + acid

2. Hydrogen + nonmetal-IDE
(IUPAC)
-Balancing chemical reactions

-Limiting reagent and Excess reagent
Full transcript