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Transcript of EXCEPTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a childhood disorder described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as an ongoing pattern of anger-guided disobedience, hostility, and defiant behavior toward authority figures that goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. Children suffering from this disorder may appear very stubborn and often angry. A diagnosis of ODD cannot be given if the child presents with conduct disorder (CD).
Some signs and symptoms that must be perpetuated for longer than six months and must be considered beyond normal child behavior to fit the diagnosis are:
The child must exhibit four out of the eight signs and symptoms listed below in order to meet the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic threshold for oppositional defiant disorder
>Actively refuses to comply with majority's requests or consensus-supported rules
>Performs actions deliberately to annoy others
>Angry and resentful of others
>Blames others for his or her own mistakes
>Often loses temper
>Spiteful or seeks revenge
>Touchy or easily annoyed
Oppositional defiant disorder was first defined in the DSM-III (1980). Since the introduction of ODD as an independent disorder, the field trials to inform the definition of this disorder has included predominantly male subjects. Some clinicians have debated whether the diagnostic criteria presented above would be clinically relevant for use with females. Furthermore, some have questioned whether gender-specific criteria and thresholds should be included. Additionally, some clinicians have questioned the preclusion of ODD when CD is present.
ODD has an estimated lifetime prevalence of 10.2% (11.2% for males, 9.2% for females). According to a 1992 article, if left untreated, about 52% of children with ODD will continue to meet the DSM-IV criteria up to three years later, and about half of those 52% will progress into conduct disorder. In many cases, CD progresses into antisocial personality disorder. This strong correlation between strong defiance in childhood and adulthood may suggest similar mechanisms for hostility toward established authority by children and by adults.
Leadership has been described as "a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task".
some understand a leader simply as somebody whom people follow, or as somebody who guides or directs others, while others define leadership as "organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal".
also known as juvenile offending, or youth crime, is participation in illegal behavior by minors (juveniles) (individuals younger than the statutory age of majority). Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers, and courts. A juvenile delinquent is a person who is typically under the age of 18 and commits an act that otherwise would have been charged as a crime if they were an adult. Depending on the type and severity of the offense committed, it is possible for persons under 18 to be charged and tried as adults
Individual risk factors
Individual psychological or behavioral risk factors that may make offending more likely include low intelligence, impulsiveness or the inability to delay gratification, aggression, lack of empathy, and restlessness. Other risk factors which may be evident during childhood and adolescence include, aggressive or troublesome behavior, language delays or impairments, lack of emotional control (learning to control one's anger), and cruelty to animals.
Family environment and peer influence
Family factors which may have an influence on offending include: the level of parental supervision, the way parents discipline a child, particularly harsh punishment, parental conflict or separation, criminal parents or siblings, parental abuse or neglect, and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Some have suggested that
having a lifelong partner leads to less offending.
Freud's psychoanalytic theory
An individual's personality is an aggregate conglomeration of the decisions they have made throughout their life and the memory of the experiences to which these decisions led. There are inherent natural, genetic, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of our personality.
Freud believed that two basic drives—sex and aggression—motivate all our thoughts and behaviour. He referred to these as Eros (love) and Thanatos. Eros represents the life instinct, sex being the major driving force. Thanatos represents the death instinct (characterised by aggression), which, according to Freud, allowed the human race to both procreate and eliminate its enemies.
Structure of personality
Freud conceived the mind as only having a fixed amount of psychic energy (libido). The outcome of the interaction between the id, ego and the superego, (each contending for as much libidinal energy as possible) determines our adult personality.
Freud believed that personality had three parts—the id, ego, and super-ego—referring to this as the tripartite personality. The id allows us to get our basic needs met. Freud believed that the id is based on the pleasure principle, i.e. it wants immediate satisfaction, with no consideration for the reality of the situation.
The ego, having a difficult time trying to satisfy both the needs of the id and the superego, employs defense mechanisms. Repression is perhaps the most powerful of these. Repression is the act by which unacceptable id impulses (most of which are sexually related) are "pushed" out of awareness and into the unconscious mind. Another example of a defense mechanism is projection. This is the mechanism that Freud used to explain Little Hans' complex. Little Hans is said to have projected his fear for his father onto horses, which is why he was afraid of them.
Mood disorder is a group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV TR) classification system where a disturbance in the person's mood is hypothesized to be the main underlying feature. The classification is known as mood (affective) disorders in ICD 10.
According to a substantial amount of epidemiology studies conducted, women are twice as likely to develop certain mood disorders, such as major depression. Although there is an equal number of men and women diagnosed with bipolar II disorder, women have a slightly higher frequency of the disorder.
In 2011, mood disorders were the most common reason for hospitalization among children aged 1–17 years in the United States, with approximately 112,000 stays.
There are different types of treatments available for mood disorders, such as therapy and medications. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has been shown to be a possible treatment for depression. Major depressive disorder medications usually include antidepressants, while bipolar disorder medications can consist of antipsychotics, mood stabilizers and/or lithium.
Kay Redfield Jamison and others have explored the possible links between mood disorders — especially bipolar disorder — and creativity. It has been proposed that a "ruminating personality type may contribute to both [mood disorders] and art."
A nonverbal learning disorder or nonverbal learning disability (NLD or NVLD) is a neurological disorder characterized by a significant discrepancy between higher verbal skills and lower motor, visuo-spatial, and social skills on an IQ test.
NLD involves deficits in perception, coordination, socialisation, non-verbal problem-solving, and understanding of humour.Nonverbal learning disorder is a common co-existing disorder in people who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
People with this disability may misunderstand non-verbal communications, or they may understand the communications but be unable to formulate an appropriate response. This can make establishing and maintaining social contacts difficult. Eye contact can also be difficult for people with NLD, either because they are uncomfortable with maintaining it or because they do not remember that others expect it. Similarly, knowing when and how to use physical contact and recognizing emotions in others and expressing them for oneself can be problematic.
People with NLD may be described as talking too much and too quickly, and they may be early readers, good at grammar, and good spellers. Children with NLD may speak months earlier than neurotypical children (as early as 7 months). Verbal communication skills are often strong, and people with NLD often rely on verbal communication as their main method of gathering information and maintaining social contact with other people. As a result, they often depend on verbal reasoning skills to compensate in areas where they have deficits.
Numerical and spatial awareness
Arithmetic and mathematics can be very difficult for people with NLD. Young children with NLD are often seen as brighter than their peers. However, as these children enter the upper elementary grades or begin middle school and they are left to handle more tasks on their own, things can rapidly begin to deteriorate. They can have problems with finding their way, remembering assignments. They can struggle with math and misunderstand teachers and peers.
People with NLD often have motor difficulties. This can manifest in their walking and running, which sometimes appear stiff. They may have difficulty with activities requiring good balance and feel unsteady when climbing up or down. They may also be more likely to run into things, due to judging distances poorly. Fine motor skills can also be poor, causing difficulty with writing, drawing, and tying shoelaces. Those with NLD are often labeled as "clumsy" or "stiff" by teachers and peers.
People with NLD, more than many others, fear failure. Because of difficulties with nonverbal communication, people with NLD often worry excessively about offending other people. They may feel that they have to do too much at once, and then do not know where to start. This allows them to stagnate, and then do nothing. Sometimes they try to multitask and again end up doing nothing, which can lead to frustration. They may experience the world around them as a chaos, the actions that they must perform well and quickly creating a sense of helplessness. Clumsiness in performing tasks may be criticized by teachers or in the workplace, causing further fear of failure.
Individuals with NLD also commonly experience clinical depression, often because their difficulties with non-verbal communication make it hard to make friends and they feel isolated, lonely, and misunderstood by others. There is a high incidence of suicide within the NLD population. Sometimes they are angry at themselves more than others, creating a sense of uselessness which can lead to depression and/or suicide
Nonverbal learning disabilities affect one in ten learning disabled children.