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Rocks and Minerals

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hunter nunley

on 8 November 2013

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Transcript of Rocks and Minerals

What Is A Mineral?
Rocks and Minerals
The Structure of Minerals
A naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite structure and composition.


Interesting Fact: There are 4,000 different minerals found on Earth.
Characteristics of Minerals
All minerals share 5 characteristics:
1. Naturally occurring
2. Inorganic
3. All are solid
4. Either an Element or Compound
5. Atoms are arranged in a repeated pattern
Mineral structures are made up of different crystal pattern forms.


Rhodochrosite
crystal atoms are grouped in a way that they form cubes.
Crystals?
Crystal-A solid in which the atoms are arranged in repeating patterns.
Not all mineral crystals have smooth surfaces and sharp edges like Quartz.
Some form in a way that you can't see the crystal structure on the outside.
How they look depends on the arrangement of their atoms
and
their arrangement depends on how they were formed. Freely Opened Space vs. Tightly closed space.
How Minerals Form
There Are 3 Ways That Minerals Form
1. Cooling of Hot Magma
*As magma cools, its atoms lose energy, move closer together, and begin to combine into compounds. Molecules of the different compounds forming begin to arrange themselves into repeated patterns.

* The type and amount of elements present in the magma help determine what minerals will form.

*When molten rock material cools rapidly, the crystals are small and harder to see with the naked eye.
Obsidian
How Minerals Form Continued
2. From minerals dissolved in liquids.
* When the liquid evaporates, the atoms in the minerals stay behind and form crystals.
3. Precipitate Out of A Solution
* If a solution becomes filled with another substance, crystals of some minerals may begin precipitating out of solution.
Example: Calcite
Purple Calcite
Mineral Composition and Groups
Of the 4,000 known minerals, only a few dozen are common.
Most of the rock-forming minerals are silicates, but other groups are also included.
Silicates-minerals that contain silicon and oxygen and usually one more elements.
Silicon and Oxygen are the two most abundant elements in the Earth's crust.
Other minerals are classified according to their composition.

Mineral Compositions and Groups
Major groups of minerals include:
1. Carbonates
2. Oxides
3. Sulfides
4. Sulfates
5. Halides
6. Hydroxides
7. Phosphates
8. Native Elements
Full transcript