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Proprionibacterium acnes

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by

Kate Philippi

on 1 May 2014

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Transcript of Proprionibacterium acnes

Genus- Named for the propionic acid produced from their fermentation
A member of Actinobacteria
Pleomorphic rods (single, paired or clumps)
Optimum growth temperature is 30-37°C.
Facultative Anaerobes but have variable aerotolerance
Fermentative, produces propionic and acetic acids and small amounts of gas
Propionibacterium
Propionibacteria and Their Role in Acne Vulgaris
Acne comes from the word acme which means "the highest point".
Acne is the most common skin condition, but is usually not severe.
Skin is the largest body organ, acne can affect a person psychologically and physically.
How one feels about acne may not be related to its severity. Some may not show effect while some are embarrassed over a few zits.
Lesions often heal slowly.
Acne Vulgaris
80-90% affected in adolscents, 8% of 25-34 year olds, and 3% are of age 35-44.
P. acnes has also been associated with inflammatory diseases because of its immunostimulatory activity.
Who is prone?
Therapy of Acne Vulgaris includes systemic therapy, topical therapy, physical/surgical proceduries, and diet.
Additional tips for prevention and maintenance include:
Keep a clean face
Moisturize
Keep your hands off your face
Remember to relax
The treatment of acne must be primarily directed towards limiting or removing the known pathogenic factors of the disease.
Because Acne Vulgaris is a disease with many complexities, the current treatments for acne differ in their mechanisms of action.
Treatment is heavily determined by the severity of the disease.
Treatment
"If the countless bacteria that dwell in and on the human body were cartoon characters, Propionibaterium acnes, a microbe that lives in the skin, might be a heavily armed superhero who doesn't know his own strength."
How it causes disease
P. acnes digests oil (sebum) created by the host's follicles.
Contains enzymes similar to flesh-eating bacteria creating holes in the host cell membranes.
When oil is not present, P. acnes utilizes an enzyme that breaks down human skin producing waste products that serve as an alternative food source.
Habitat One
Intestinal tract of animals.
Rennin contaminated with
Propionibactrium
.
Species of Propionibacterium
Propionibacterium acnes
Propionibacterium granulosum
Propionibacterium avidum
Propionibacterium propionicus
Fermentation Process
Characteristics
Commensal bacteria.
An opportunistic pathogen.
Circular chromosome with 2,333 genes.
Resides in sebaceous follicles all over the body (mainly face, upper back and chest.
Part of the indigenous micro biota of the human skin.
Uses Phase Variation as a defense mechanism from our immune system.
Pathogenic Factors
Follicular hyperkeratination- results in the clogging of the sebaccous oil duct.
Bacteria- Specifically P. acnes
Excess sebum- helps to create a nutrient rich medium for P. acnes.
Inflammation- contributes to inflammatory lesions (white heads, black heads, papules, pustules, nodules).
The different effects that treatment has on acne:
Normalizing the shedding of dead skin cells and sebum production in the pore to prevent blockage.
Killing Propionibacterium acnes
Anti-inflammatory effects
Hormonal manipulation
Severity of Acne:
Mild Acne
Moderate Acne
Moderately Severe Acne
Very Severe Acne
Lab Tests
Gram + Bacterium
Catalase + Bacterium
Non-motile
Non-sporing
Process in Swiss cheese.
Propionibacterium + Lactic acid=Propionic acid, acetic acid, and CO2.
Habitat Two
Found on skin in sebaceous glands.
Volatile fatty acids give off distinct smell.
Gives humans and animals characteristic natural scent.
Produces propionic acid abundantly.
Ferments lactic acid produced by S. epidermidis= forms propionic acid and acetic acid.
Immune Dysfunctions:
Hyper-sensitive
Sebum Composition and function:
Protection
Keeps your skin healthy
Made of a variety of different lipids
Sebum composition varies with age.
Bonus Video?
(Viewer Discretion Advised)
Therapy, Prevention, and Maintenance
Systemic Therapy
Oral antibiotics- conventional treatment of Acne Vulgaris.
Oral Isotretinoin- most effective drug in sebosupression and in treatment of the most severe cases of acne.
Hormonal treatment- for women who do not respond to the conventional treatment of Acne Vulgaris.
Topical Therapy:
Topical retinoids
- reduces comedone and inflammatory acne lesions (Adapalene, Tretinoin, etc.)
Topical Antibiotics
- because of its bactericidal properties, topical antibiotics have become a widely used form of acne treatment.
Benzoyl Peroxide
- it is a first-line topical treatment for mild to moderate acne because of its efficacy and mild side effects.
Salicylic acid
- reduces acne by opening up obstructed pores and promotes the shedding of dead skin cells.
Physical/surgical Procedures:
Comedo extraction- a treatment method that is widely used by dermatologists or cosmetologists to extract a comedones from a pore opening.
Intralesional corticosteroids- a steroid injection that eliminates nodular lesions without incision. (reduces the number of acne scars.)
Diet:
The relationship between one's diet and Acne Vulgaris is unclear and still being studied.
Regardless, it is recommended to shy away from these foods;
Overconsumption of milk
Chocolate (Sorry Heidi)
Fatty foods
Sugary foods and beverages
Shell fish
Acne Scars
Acne Scars
Atrophia Maculosa Varioliformis Cutis is commonly known as acne scars or ice pick scars, resulting from scar tissue.
Macules -are common in the healing process, as a red spot, which may be puffy and inflamed.
Physical
scars can be painful if they become infected.
Emotional
scars can linger long after the pimples have faded. Not all scars are visible.
Psychological
stress is directly impacted by ones emotional state of stress.
Acne can have profound social and psychological effects; suffering from depression, social withdrawl etc…
Fun Facts
In northern Italy, researchers discovered a new bacteria that colonizes pimples to also colonize grapevines.
The pathogen spread from humans onto grapevines.
This is the first time that’s known for a human bacteria to spread to plants.
Although the microbe first originated on humans it is now a plant pathogen and cannot pass onto humans.
This new pathogen was name P. Zappae after Frank Zappa.
Full transcript