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History of Kazakhstan
Transcript of History of Kazakhstan
Kazakh Khanate (1465–1731)
Kazakhstan history tells us that even before our era numerous nomadic tribes inhabited what is now Kazakhstan. The historians of antiquity called them the Saka. For many centuries the land of the Saka was the scene of bloody, devastating wars. And many conquerors had encroached on that land.
The 19th century
The 20th century
The history of Kazakhstan
In 1218, Mongol-Tatar hordes led by Genghiz Khan invaded Kazakhstan
The Golden Horde
The Kazakh Khanate was founded in 1465 on the banks of Zhetysu (literally means seven rivers) in the south eastern part of present Republic of Kazakhstan by Janybek Khan and Kerey Khan.
During the reign of Kasym Khan (1511–1523), the Kazakh Khanate expanded considerably. Kasym Khan instituted the first Kazakh code of laws in 1520, called "Qasym Khannyn Qasqa Zholy" (Bright Road of Kasym Khan).
At its height the Khanate would rule parts of Central Asia and control Cumania.
Other prominent Kazakh khans included Haknazar Khan, Esim Khan, Tauke Khan, and Ablai Khan.
The Kazakh Khanate did not always have a unified government. The Kazakhs were traditionally divided into three parts – the Great jüz, Middle jüz, and Little jüz. All zhuzes had to agree in order to have a common khan. In particular, in 1731 there was no strong Kazakh leadership, and the three zhuzes were incorporated into the Russian Empire one by one. At that point, the Kazakh Khanate ceased to exist.
The Kazakh Khanate is described in historical texts such as the Tarikh-i-Rashidi (1541–1545) by Muhammad Haidar Dughlat, and Zhamigi-at-Tavarikh (1598–1599) by Kadyrgali Kosynuli Zhalayir.
It was then that Kazakhs appealed for help to their neighbor, Russia, with which they had long been carrying on a lively trade to meet their needs for various consumer goods. In 1731 an act on Kazakhstan’s voluntary accession to Russia was signed.
Despite the colonial policy of Russian government, this was an important step, which opened before the Kazakhs the opportunity of establishing direct economic and cultural links with Russian people. Crop farming began to develop rapidly, industrial enterprises were set up.
Two of Kazakh Hordes were depend of Oirat Huntaiji. In 1730 Abul Khayr, one of the khans of the Lesser Horde, sought Russian assistance. Although Abul Khayr's intent had been to form a temporary alliance against the stronger Kalmyks, the Russians gained permanent control of the Lesser Horde as a result of his decision. The Russians conquered the Middle Horde by 1798, but the Great Horde managed to remain independent until the 1820s, when the expanding Kokand Khanate to the south forced the Great Horde khans to choose Russian protection, which seemed to them the lesser of two evils.
In the early 19th century, the construction of Russian forts began to have a destructive effect on the Kazakh traditional economy by limiting the once-vast territory over which the nomadic tribes could drive their herds and flocks. The final disruption of nomadism began in the 1890s, when many Russian settlers were introduced into the fertile lands of northern and eastern Kazakhstan
The 20th century
The First World War, which broke out in 1914, brought innumerable calamities to the people of Kazakhstan as to the entire people of Russia. Livestock, fodder and agricultural produce were requisitioned from the Kazakhs. Taxes and levies of all kinds were increased.
According to the history of Kazakhstan after the rebellion of October 1917 the Bolsheviks ignored the ethnic differences of the people and created Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Kazakhstan in present-day Kyrgyzstan. Five years later, in 1925, the Kazakh appellation is reinstated; the Kazakh Autonomous SSR was given a capital - Alma-Ata.
The Alash Autonomy (1917–1920)
In 1917 a group of secular nationalists called the Alash Orda Horde of Alash, named for a legendary founder of the Kazakh people, attempted to set up an independent national government – the Alash Autonomy. This state lasted just over two years (13 December 1917 to 26 August 1920) before surrendering to the Bolshevik authorities, who then sought to preserve Russian control under a new political system.[curtis 3]
During this period, the Russian administrator Vasile Balabanov had control much of the time with General Dootoff.
Kazakh Autonomous SSR flag
Kazakh Autonomous SSR coat of arms
In the 1950s, Nikita Khrushchev decided to use Kazakhstan to showcase Soviet ingenuity in land management and agriculture. As a result, he appointed Leonid Brezhenev First Secretary of Kazakhstan and commissioned him to carry out what was later known as the “Virgin Lands” project.
Helped by Kazakh Dinmukhammad Kunayev and a large number of Kazakh youths, Brezhnev turned the ancestral Kazakh grazing lands into wheat and cotton fields. While this was a major plan for the Soviet Union the project played havoc with the lives of the Kazakhs. Distanced from their major sources of self sufficiency, bread and meat, they became entirely dependent on imports from the rest of the Soviet Union.
The 1960s and 1970s saw the arrival of a different group of Soviets, the technicians who worked the coal and gas deposits and who took charge of the oil industry. This new community, added to the old farming and mining communities, tipped the balance against the Kazakhs who began to become a minority in their own country.
After Brezhnev, Kunayev became First Secretary. Using ancient Kazakh institutions such as tribal hierarchy and bata, Kunayev forged a new system of exploitation within the already exploitative Soviet system. As the chief of the “tribe” he made all the decisions on hiring and firing of managers of major firms and plants.
Then using bata, or sealed lip, he prevented any information that could damage his operation from reaching the Center in Moscow. The Kunayev empire, built around a core of his kinsmen, grew very strong. It would have grown even stronger if not Mikhail Gorbachev who displaced Kunayev as First Secretary and installed a Russian, Gennadii Kolbin, in his place.
On 16 December 1986, the Soviet Politburo dismissed the long serving General Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, Dinmukhamed Konayev. His successor was Gennady Kolbin from Ulyanovsk, Russia. This caused demonstrations protesting this move. These demonstrations were violently suppressed by the authorities, "between two and twenty people lost their lives, and between 763 and 1137 received injuries.
In June 1990, Moscow declared formally the sovereignty of the central government over Kazakhstan, forcing Kazakhstan to elaborate its own statement of sovereignty. This exchange greatly exacerbated tensions between the republic's two largest ethnic groups, who at that point were numerically about equal. Beginning in mid-August 1990, Kazakh and Russian nationalists began to demonstrate frequently around Kazakhstan's parliament building, attempting to influence the final statement of sovereignty being developed within. The statement was adopted in October 1990