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isha c

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Transcript of airplanes

airplanes before airplanes improvement everyday life ship horse Before airplanes were invented, people had to find other, slower methods of travel. car Without the speed of airplanes, travel could take weeks. There were no safe ways for food, supplies, or people to be transported over large distances in a short amount of time. aviation 400 BC: The Chinese first used kites for religious ceremonies. They soon were also used for recreation, and later, testing weather conditions. 1480: Leonardo da Vinci created hundreds of drawings depicting his ideas on bird and mechanical flight. His device, the Ornithopter flying machine, was never actually built, but the modern-day helicopter was built based on his design. Joseph Michel and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier invented the hot-air balloon. They blew smoke from flames into a silk bag, and the hot air rose, bringing the balloon with it. The balloon climbed to a height of around 6,000 feet and traveled over a mile. 1799-1850: Sir George Cayley built the world's first hang glider. He experimented with wings, lift, drag, tail surfaces, steering rudders, and air screws. the first flight 1903: Orville and Wilbur Wright were the first people to create and fly in a modern airplane as we know them today, on December 17, 1903. Their plane, the "Flyer", rose from ground north of Big Kill Devil Hill, and traveled 120 feet in 10 seconds. Orville and Wilbur Wright were determined to build the world's first airplane. They researched other inventors' works, and read all of the aviation-related literature that had been published. They experimented with gliders like George Cayley's until they found a satisfactory shape. Once the Wright brothers settled upon their glider shape, they began to fly tests in the North Carolina Outer Banks dunes. They create a propulsion system that would add the lift that a plane would to need in order to fly. Their engine used nearly 12 horsepower. achievements in aviation 1903: 1914: 1918: First "autopilot", via automatic gyrostabilizer 1927: 1933: 1947: First year of airmail service First continuous solo flight across the Atlantic First modern commercial airliner (247) Sound barrier broken getting into the air navigation how jet engines work 1: The engine sucks in air through a fan. 2: The compressor is made of fans and blades attatched to a shaft. The blades compress the air. 3: That same compressed air is exposed to fuel, and an electric spark is lit within the mixture. 4: The gases are directed to rotate a propeller in the turbine shaft, allowing the fan to create more thrust, and keep more control at high altitudes. 5: The gas shoots backwards, propelling the jet forwards. Heavy airplanes get into the air via fluid dynamics. Pushes the plane forward or pulls it backwards in space. Friction that resists, and keeps an object from moving. For airplanes to fly, the force of the thrust must overcome that of the drag. thrust drag Product of weight and mass; drags objects towards earth. weight Opposite of weight; helps planes fly lift Airplane wings split the air, and they are tilted so the air underneath the wings is moving faster than the air above them. The faster-moving air above the wing exterts less pressure on the slower-moving air below the wing, and the result is an upward push or lift. angle of attack: the angle that a wing is tilted against oncoming air The greater the angle of attack, the greater the lift. A smaller angle of attack results in less lift. A negative angle of attack leads to zero lift. The shape and angle of the airfoil (addition to wings) can be altered by the pilots via flaps and slats. by isha chavva Now, people and goods can travel long distances safely. Before airplanes, options for travel were limited. Ships were full of disease; trains and horses did not allow for travel over water. Airplanes allow for fresh fruit, seafood, flowers, and other fast-expiring foreign products to be delivered quickly. Airplanes help aspects of other cultures reach America quickly, advancing cultural diffusion and allowing America to stay up-to date with modern developments. Airplanes help save lives: organ transplants are made possibly by quickly-delivered organs. Before, searching for a donor was limited to organs near your area. Now, airplanes allow for thousand of lives to be saved via international donors. Airplanes have completely revolutionized travel time. Trips that would originally take months to complete can now be taken in a matter of mere hours, changing lives everywhere with an efficient speed. early flights First sustained flight in controlled airplane workings of a plane sources http://www.greatachievements.org/?id=2951 http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/airplanes.htm http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/turbine1.htm http://www.globalaircraft.org/history_of_aviation.htm
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