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Introduction To Biology

Pre-AP Biology Assignment for Katrina Brown - Summer 2013 - All images are licensed for commercial use unless stated otherwise.

Brianna Brown

on 6 December 2013

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Transcript of Introduction To Biology

Introduction To Biology
Organic Chemistry
+ Carbon is so unique that is has its own branch of chemistry (organic chemistry).
Water and Living Systems
+ Water is dependent upon by all living systems.
Abilities of Water Due to its Polarity and Hydrogen Bonding
Elements and Matter
+ Every living thing is made of matter, which are composed of atoms.
Cellular Structure and Function
Types of Cells
+ Cells are all throughout living organisms and are required in order to maintain life.
Prokaryotic Cells
+ They are smaller, less complex, and lack a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
Similarities Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
+ All are bounded with a plasma membrane.
By: Brianna Brown
+ Atoms are the basic blocks of matter; they are made of three types of subatomic particles: protons (positive, in nucleus), neutrons (neutral, in nucleus), and electrons (negative, surround nucleus).
Atoms Bond To Form Elements
+ Atoms come together through ionic and covalent bonding.
+ In covalent bonding, the valence electrons of two atoms are being shared. Example: H2
+ In Ionic bonding, an atom strips another atom's valance electron(s) away. Example: NaCl
Atoms Bond To Form Elements (continued)
+ When atoms bond they make
which create

When the molecules consist of more than one element, they are called
Naturally Occurring Elements
+ Living systems need 20-25% of naturally occurring elements.
96% = carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
4% = calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur
Trace Elements
are elements needed by living systems but are only needed in small amounts.
Making and Breaking of Chemical Bonds
+ Elements that are not already formed in your body are obtained by either absorption or consumption.
+ In any environment, energy is needed to break a chemical bond while energy is released when bonds are made.
+ The making and breaking of bonds are caused by chemical reactions.
+ Carbon has 4 valence electrons (6 in total), therefore it can have many bonds enabling it to form large, complex molecules.
+ Carbon makes up the 4 groups of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Carbohydrates (sugars)
+ Sugars (monosaccharides) and polymers of sugars (polysaccharides).
+ Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen while in the form of CH2O. Their names normally end in "-ose".
Storage polysaccharides
are used as preserved energy by storing starch (plants) or glycogen (animals).
Structural polysaccharides
serve as building material and strengths exoskeletons and cell walls.
Example: Cellulose (which surround and protect cells)
Lipids (fats)
+ Lipids are made of glycerol (an alcohol with 3 carbons) and 3 fatty acids (long carbon skeletons).
+ Lipids are made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and
+ Lipids are energy sources and serve as signal molecules (hormones).
+ However,
have two fatty acids and a phosphate group instead of a third fatty acid.
+ Proteins are polymers of amino acids (polypeptides).
+ Proteins consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and
+ They have many factors that include speeding up chemical reactions (enzymes), transport, communication between cells, storage, movement, and protection against harmful substances.
Nucleic Acids
+ Contribute to the hereditary information of cells.
+ Nucleic Acids are polymers (polynucleotides) of monomers called nucleotides.
+ Nucleic Acids are made of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon,
, and
+ Two types are DNA and RNA
DNA stores hereditary information while RNA contributes to the process of protein synthesis.
+ It is needed in order to live since all cells are 70-90% water.
H2O's Polarity
+ A polar covalent bond is when atoms share electrons unequally, resulting in one atom being more electronegative.
+ When two hydrogen molecules bond with an oxygen atom, the electrons are more attractive to the oxygen atom because it (3.5)* is more electronegative than hydrogen (2.1)*.
*on electronegativity scale
Hydrogen Bonds
+ A type of strong molecular force, hydrogen bonding accounts for many of water's unique characteristics.
+ The H atom of an H2O molecule is strongly attracted to the O atom of another molecule.
This is because opposite attract (H - less electronegative) to (O - more electronegative).
+ This creates relatively weak bonds (weaker than covalent) causing the molecules to be able to easily break free when needed.
+ Cohesion, in terms of water, is when water molecules stick to each other.
+ This is due to hydrogen bonding.
+ An example would be a puddle of water: all the water stays together rather than splitting apart.
+ Adhesion is the ability of water to stick to other surfaces.
+ This is also due to hydrogen bonding
+ An example would be when a lizard walks across a pond. The water molecules stick to the feet of the lizard.
High Specific Heat Capacity
+ Water can absorb lots of heat without changing its overall temperature.
+ This is, once again, due to hydrogen bonding.
+When heat is absorbed, hydrogen bonds break. They are formed when heat is released.
* Imagine this pond is holding a lot of heat from the atmosphere.*
Water as a Universal Solvent
+ An aqueous solution is a solution in which water is the solvent.
+ When a substance, such as an ionic compound, is dissolved in water, H2O molecules surround each ion in order to break the substance down.
The hydration shell is the actual water molecules surrounding the ions.
A hydration cell surrounding a sodium ion
* Image from Wikipedia
Heat of Vaporization
+ Heat of Vaporization is the amount of heat needed in order for 1g of water to be evaporated.
+ Water has a high heat of vaporization
+ After vaporization, the remaining water goes through evaporative cooling. This is because when water evaporates it takes heat with it.
Water evaporating from a mug
Heat of Fusion
+Heat of Fusion is the amount of heat needed to convert a solid to a liquid without a change in temperature
+ Water has a high heat of fusion
* lets assume that some of the ice is melting*
Water's Thermal Conductivity
+ Due to hydrogen bonding, liquid water molecules expand when they become a solid (freeze).
+ This results in frozen water being less dense than liquid water.
+ This is why ice floats in a glass of water.
+ Cells have a high surface area to volume ratio which means that the area can increase while keeping the volume constant.
+ Cells are categorized into two different groups: eukaryotic and prokaryotic.
Eukaryotic Cells
+ Eukaryotic Cells are large, complex, have a nucleus with DNA, and contain membrane bound organelles.
+ The membrane bound organelles each have a special function to do in order to maintain the cell.
Next we will look at each specific organelle...
These include animal and plant cells.
+ All have fluid in the cell called the cytosol/cytoplasm.
+ All contain chromosomes, which are genetic codes.
+ All have ribosomes.
The End
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Smooth ER
Rough ER
Golgi Apparatus
Cell Wall (in plants)
Chloroplasts (in plants)
Plasma Membrane
Extracellular Matrix (ECM) (in animals)
+They include Bacteria and Archaea.
Next we will look at each specific part...
Cell Wall
+ Contains hereditary information in forms of nucleic acids.
+ Center of nucleus is called the nucleolus and contains RNA.
RNA carries the code for protien synthesis
+ Located normally in center of the cell.
* center ball represents nucleus
+ Made of RNA and protiens
+ Function is to carry out protien synthesis.
+ There are two types of ribsomes : free and bound
Free are found throughout the cytosal
Bound are attached to the rough ER and the nuclear envelope.
+ Have two parts : rough and smooth ER
+ Both consist of tubules and sacs called cisterane
+ Rough ER has bound ribosomes, while Smooth ER does not.
+ Functions include:
Synthesizing lipids
Metabolizing carbohydrates
Storing calcium
Detoxifying poison
+ Functions Include:
Having bound ribosomes attached to it
Producing proteins and membranes
+ Items are brought here from the ER by transport vesicles.
+ Here, the items are modified as needed and then stored or sent to a required destination.
+ This organelle is also specialized for secretion.
+ There are two sides of the Golgi Apparatus.
cis face (which recieves items from vesicles)
trans face (which ships off modified items)
+ They are sacs that contain hydrolytic enzymes.
+ These enzymes can digest macromolcules.
+ The actual lysosomes are like garbage disposals for cells.
+ Carries items around to various destinations in the cell.
+ There are three types.
Food vacuoles - which store food and are formed by phagocytosis.
Contractile vacuoles - which pump extra water out of protist cells.
Central vacuoles - which holds important organic compounds and water.
+ Site of the production of ATP, which is an energy source for cells.
+ The production of ATP is done through a process called cellular respiration.
+ It has its own DNA.
+ It consists of a smooth outer membrane with an inner membrane folded into a cristae.
+ It can produce hydrogen peroxide and then convert it to water.
+ They are similar to lysosomes, but are involved in the digestion of amino acids.
+ Is involved in detoxification in the liver.
+ Supports the cell.
+ Are made of a network of fibers which extend throughout the cytoplasm.
+ The three types of fiber that make up the cytoskeleton are

, and
+ It is the microtubule organizing center.
+ Centrosomes contain a pair of centrioles.
Remember that microtubules are one of the fibers that make up the cytoskeleton. Therefore, centrosomes are needed for supporting the cell.
* Image is from scienceblogs.com
+ Flagella and Cilia are responsible for the movement of cells.
+ They both consist of microtubules and share a common ultrastructure.
+ Flagella is more of a tail (think sperm cells) while cillia is more fuzzy looking (think egg cells).
* Sperm cell with flagella
* Cell with cilia
+ Plants have cell walls which support the plant and contain channels called plasmodesmata.
+ They consist of cellulose fibers, polysaccharides, and protein
* cell wall shown in green
+ Animals, on the other hand, have ECM instead of plant walls.
+ They also support the cell and contain channels.
+ They consist of glycoproteins and other macromolecules.
** image used from wiki.pingry.org
+ Chloroplasts are only found in plants.
+ They are the sight of photosynthesis which produce glucose. (source of energy).
+ They also contain chlorophyll, which give plants their green color.
+ Controls what enters and leaves the cell
Has selective permeability
+ Separates the cell from its environment.
+ Consists of a phospholipid bilayer and protiens.
+ Made of RNA and protiens
+ Function is to carry out protien synthesis.
+ There are two types of ribsomes : free and bound
Free are found throughout the cytosal
Bound are attached to the rough ER and the nuclear envelope.
(same as in eukaryotic cells)
(Same as in eukaryotic animal cells)
+ Plants have cell walls which support the plant and contain channels called plasmodesmata.
* cell wall shown in green
+ They consist of cellulose fibers, polysaccharides, and protein
(Same as in certain type of eukaryotic cells)
+ Responsible for movement of cells.
+ Consist of microtubules and resemble a tail-like appearence.
* Flagella is shown as the green looking tail
+ Hair-like structure located on the surfaces of bacteria capsules.
+ Responsible for allowing bacteria to stick to surfaces.
+ Capsules, or pills, protect cells from phagocytosis.
This makes them harder to digest
+ Capsules are usually associated with bacteria.
+ Prokaryotic cells do not have nuclei, but they still have DNA
+ The area where DNA, and all other genetic material, is located is called the nucleoid.
+ Is commonly in center of cell.
* nucleoid found in blue*
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