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Factors that affect human growth and development
Transcript of Factors that affect human growth and development
Illness and Disease
Social, cultural and emotional factors
Influence of Play
Influence of Role Models
Influence of Social Isolation
Employment/unemployment/not in education, employment or training
Physical environment factors
Relationships with family members
Growing up in care
Friendship patterns and relationships with partners
Our genes are inherited from our parents.
Genes determine our physical growth, appearance and abilities.
Each human cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Each chromosome has over 4000 genes; these tell the body’s cells how to grow.
A person can do very little to change their physical features and growth potential.
Genes also carry information that affects growth and development throughout life. Your genes are responsible for illnesses, disabilities and diseases you develop. This is because you may be born into a family with a history of stroke or cancer and you have inherited the genes for that disorder. Whether you inherit the disorder is due to other factors too, e.g. lifestyle choices.
Your lifestyle, e.g. attitudes, behaviours and choices has an impact on your health and development.
Those among us who make healthy choices will be different in lifestyle to those who make unhealthy choices.
If you make unhealthy choices you are more likely to experience health problems.
Unhealthy lifestyle choices include smoking, substance misuse and poor diet.
Some illnesses (e.g. coughs and colds) are easily treatable and short-term.
Some illnesses are genetic and passed in our genes (e.g. haemophilia) and can affect our growth and development.
Infectious diseases (e.g. HIV) can cause permanent damage to a person’s health and can be fatal.
Degenerative conditions (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease) can affect a person’s health and development in adulthood, as well as affecting a person’s social relationships, result in emotional distress, and destroy intellectual abilities.
Children play a lot at a young age. Play promotes development.
Younger children use solo or parallel play, as they get older play becomes cooperative and associative.
Through play children develop social relationships, develop interaction and cooperation skills, and develop their imagination.
Play also develops fine and gross motor skills to build physical strength and stamina.
Culture influences the way we dress, our diet, and the type of relationships we form.
When you live in a multicultural country like the UK we develop differently due to our cultural influences.
Culture also includes religious beliefs. Religions include Islam, Christianity, Hinduism and Judaism. This provides followers with rules about health, lifestyle and moral issues (marriage, personal hygiene, abortion etc).
Your health beliefs, behaviour and relationships can also be influenced by the community your belong to.
Gender is whether you are biologically male or female.
Gender refers to how society expects you to behave.
In the West girls are expected to be 'feminine' (kind, caring and gentle). This leads to assumptions of women to do non-manual work, cook, clean and look after children.
Boys are expected to be 'masculine' and be boisterous and tough. This leads men to do manual work and be decision-makers.
This leads to inequality, and can effect women's pay. This isn't as bad as it once was, but can still affect intellectual and emotional development about how we are expected to behave.
The media has an effect on how people develop and how we view each other. Parents are concerns about TV programmes showing negative and violent themes that can affect our children's development.
Gender, racial, and sexist stereotypes and celebrity role models can also influence young people.
Positive images can also be shown in the media, e.g. health education and promoting healthy living.
People who are socially isolated lack family and close friends. People can become socially isolated as they age and get infirm, when they have mental health problems, or if they lack the social skills and confidence to make friends.
Social isolation can be due to bullying in childhood and adolescence.
Social isolation can make someone stressed, depressed and have low self-esteem.
Income is the amount of money in a household.
It can come from working, pensions, welfare benefits, or investments.
The amount of money an individual has effects development because it affects the quality of life available to them.
People with a good income are likely to have a better education and more leisure opportunities.
If you do not have a sufficient income you can be described as living in poverty. When you have little money it puts stress on the family.
Having a job ensures most people in the UK have an income.
Some jobs provide better incomes, better working conditions and a higher social status.
A person's employment also decides their social class (people with higher status employment have a higher social class).
A job can also affect your self-concept, intellectual, emotional and social development.
Having a high status job will be stimulating and have a positive effect.
Working in difficult or stressful conditions, in a low status job, in an unsupportive environment can have a negative effect on self-esteem.
NEETs is a term used to describe 16-24 year olds who are not in education, employment or training.
In 2007 20% of young people in the UK were NEETs, in Northern Ireland this was 14%.
NEETs are also associated with teenage pregnancy and crime, particularly by politicians and the media.
Children who truant or are excluded from schools are most likely to become NEETs, they are more likely to suffer long-term unemployment, have low self-esteem and have higher rates of mental health problems.
Housing provides physical shelter and protection.
This is important for physical health and development (lack of adequate heating, damp and overcrowding can lead to breathing disorders, stress and mental health problems).
Children who live in overcrowded homes are more likely to be victims of accidents.
People with low income sometimes have to choose between food and heating.
A lack of heating can lead to hypothermia.
Your home also provides a sense of emotional wellbeing and psychological security (which affects your emotional development).
Pollution is the release of high concentrations of dangerous substances (e.g. human waste or chemicals) into the environment.
Pollution can remain for many years, cause health problems for many.
Pollution can affect the sea, air, water or land.
Factories often give off smoke as pollution. But some pollution you cannot see, e.g. acid rain (which can lead to asthma).
Noise pollution occurs from human or machine-made noise (e.g. cars, aircraft etc). Chronic (long-term) exposure to noise can lead to tinnitus, increased stress levels, disturbed sleep and hearing loss.
Family is important because...
1. Provides you with education and socialisation.
2. Supports you emotionally and financially.
3. Protects your health and wellbeing through care and guidance.
Relationship problems affect a person’s social and environmental development.
If parents are arguing then it can lead to stress for the children.
If teenagers are causing problems in the family then it can cause difficulties for all.
Children who grow up in care are more vulnerable in adolescence.
They have to deal with sexuality, peer pressure and puberty with no parental role models.
People who grow up in care are more likely to experience teenage pregnancy, become involved in alcohol and substance misuse, to be excluded from school, and achieve fewer and lower grade qualifications.
Children in care worry about prejudice from others who may view them negatively. Supportive foster parents and teachers can provide stability for the child.
Friends are important in childhood because they help you to develop socially and emotionally.
Friends are important in adolescence when you are trying to develop a separate identity from parents, it is important to feel liked and respected by peers.
In adulthood friendships are important because they help you maintain a social life outside of family.
In later adulthood friendships are important because they are a source of companionship and a connection to your past.
Friends help you to feel like you belong, they are a source of support and they help build self-esteem.
Stress is when we feel challenged or threatened and cannot cope with demands placed on us.
Extreme stress can lead to physical and mental health problems (e.g. asthma, high blood pressure and migraines).
Stress can be experienced at any life stage and can affect your emotional development due to negative feelings caused.
It could also affect social development if it causes difficulties in relationships with others.