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Convict Museum Exhibition - Jackie.W
Transcript of Convict Museum Exhibition - Jackie.W
Museum Exhibition Lady Penrhyn Lady Penryhn was one of the
eleven ships in the First Fleet
and weighed 333 tonnes. Lady Penryhn
left Portsmouth on the 13th of May 1787
and carried 101 female convicts, including
Mary Dickenson and arrived at Sydney Cove,
Port Jackson on the 26th of January 1788. Arriving in Australia Upon arriving in Australia, the people on board the First Fleet encountered many problems. The officials on board the ships soon realised that very few convicts were able to farm and that none of them were very capable fisherman. This meant they were forced to rely on rations from the ships. Furthermore the convicts and settlers also had difficulties creating shelter due to the lack of materials and tools they were given. The First Fleet also forgot to bring any sort of clothing so when the Second Fleet arrived, everyone in the colony were dressed patched and worn clothing. Life in Australia Mary got married in Australia on the 26th January,1788 to another First Fleet convict called William Eggleton, who was
also known as Bones. They had four children:
1788 - Sarah, born on December 25
1791 - William, born October 16
1796 - Elizabeth, born February 18
1793 - William Eggleton Junior was born on May 12
On 1793 William Eggleton received a ticket of leave and was given 60 acres of land at Prospect from the Governor Phillip. He named the area Eggleton's Endeavour and it was there where Mary lived the rest of her life until she died in 1799. THANK YOU FOR
COMING TO THIS
MUSEUM EXHIBITON References used:
http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/ifhaa/ships/1stfleet.htm 1766 - 1799 First Fleet Convict Mary Dickenson was born in the 1760's, during one of the most influential times in the world, the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was the alteration to better manufacturing processes leading to many advancements in technology and changes in the human society. Though there were many positive factors of this revolution, there were also many negative impacts, primarily effecting the working class. Mary was one of the many people in the working class at the time and due to the introduction of factories and "improved" machinery, the working conditions dropped drastically. This was due to the lack of breaks they were given and the long hours of labour they endured, usually up to 10 or more hours everyday in disgusting and dirty circumstances. Furthermore Mary and other workers received very low income and didn't have enough money to sustain standard living conditions.
The Industrial Revolution sparked a new inspiration for imperialism, the conquering of areas high in raw materials and areas which are capable of the opening of new markets. This meant that industrialised countries such as Britain, were able to spread their authority over weaker countries, allowing them to make markets where they could both manufacture and sell their products. In addition industrialised countries could also transport "goods" to and from those areas. Due to poverty, hard labour and harsh living conditions, crime amongst the working class was a common thing, leading to many
overburdened prison facilities. Wanting to relieve these facilities, the British government
decided to set up a penal colony in Australia for convicts such as Mary Dickenson. Poverty and Crime Beer Street and Gin Lane In 1751, William Hogarth, an English artist, issued two prints called
Beer Street and Gin Lane which symbolised the working class and their poverty. This picture shows the poor living conditions that Mary and many other people had to live in and represents a time of depression and misery. Mary also lived her life throughout the "gin craze" where the poor valued the ideal of pleasure and wanted to become drunk whenever possible. These circumstances caused many of the working class to commit crimes such as robbery, burglary and murder. Mary was convicted on 1786 for stealing 11 waistcoats from the property of Richard Marks and was given a 7 year sentence in Australia. Mary and other convicts would have stayed in
cells shown in the picture on the right. Many
convicts would be cramped into one large cell
underneath the deck of the ship, where it would be
very difficult to either breathe or move.
Furthermore there would be little to
no sunlight and the area was generally cold
and damp. There were also guards who
would patrol the cells. Occasionally the
convicts would be let out for exercise
and fresh air. The Voyage Lady Penrhyn experienced many difficulties throughout their journey to Australia. Not only did she lag behind the other ships of the First Fleet due to her lower sailing capabilities, there was also a switch between three seamen as they were caught refusing to steer the ship as ordered by the master and were guilty of mutiny. Surgeon John White - Journal Entry, On board Charlotte :
"We crossed the tropical line in 18°20' west longitude, and was nearly pressed on board the Lady Penrhynn transport, whose people did not attend to her steerage, being deeply engaged in sluicing and ducking all those on board who had never crossed it." This quote from John White's journal entry shows the danger the seamen were placing the people on board Lady Penrhyn and Charlotte in, as the two ships were nearly "pressed on board".
In addition, the female convicts on board the ship also caused several problems. This included thieving, fighting and cursing. Mary and many other female convicts, were punished for their actions. Some examples of
the punishment they would of received were heavier irons or flogging. Logbook of Crime The primary sources below are both informative logbooks which display the amount of criminal offenders in certain areas around England. It also shows the increase of crime by comparing the changes in number of criminal offenders between different time periods. These statistics show the impact and severity of the Industrial Revolution, and how it greatly effects the people of the working class. Many people including Mary were forced to commit crimes in order to live. Pictures Illustrating the First Fleets Arrival in Australia William's Housing Would be
Similar to this Painting