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Zika Virus

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by

Meg O'Brien

on 25 August 2016

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Transcript of Zika Virus

Symptoms
80% of infections do
not
cause symptoms

Symptoms may include:
cause skin rashes, fever, muscle and joint pain, malaise, conjunctivitis and headaches
(lasts for 2-7 days)

Incubation period is estimated 3-14 days
Zika can be found in organs that are protected by the immune system such as seminal fluid, placenta and foetal brain tissue making it harder to defend and possibly lengthening the time frame in which it can be transmitted.
What is Zika
Effects
The Body's Defence
Zika Virus
Prevention and Treatment
History
Current Research
The Future
-
infectious single stranded RNA disease
, closely related to dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses,
caused by the Zika virus

- confirmed modes of transmission include:
bite from an infected aedes mosquito
, mother to fetus during
pregnancy
,
sexual contact
- unconfirmed modes of transmission include:
blood transfusion, organ and tissue transplant, fertility treatment, breast feeding


Microcephaly
Guillian-Barre Syndrome
nervous system damages nerve cells within immune system
- muscle weakness
- paralysis

Research into link is continuing

Few people who have been infected with Zika will experience the syndrome
Neuropathological Conditions
death of cells responsible for the replacement of damaged or lost adult brain cells

lead to conditions such as depression and Alzheimer’s
Despite the fact that Zika only causes mild symptoms, effects of the virus can be serious.

Effect of Zika passed through pregnancy:
brain defects, eye defects, hearing loss, impaired growth and miscarriage
Green reveales that Zika can infect the adult mouse brain in a region full of neural progenitor cells, which plays an important role in learning and memory.
Congenital condition where an infants head is much smaller than expected

Results in:
developmental delays, difficulties with coordination and balance, dwarfism or short stature, facial distortions, hyperactivity, mental retardation, seizures
Protect from mosquitoes:
repellent, long clothing, sleeping under nets, closing screens, windows and doors, monitoring water
Protect from high risk areas:
Check travel safety warnings before travel
Protect from sexual transmission:
Use protection (condoms)
There is no vaccine or medical treatment for Zika virus
Treatment of symptoms such as resting and drinking fluids is recommended
1947
- strand isolated in Rhesus mokey, Uganda
1948
- strand isolated in aedes africanus mosquito, Uganda
1952
- Zika virus is first detected in Humans, Uganda & Tanzania
1960-1980
- Zika spreads to western countries of Africa and Asia
2007
- Zika outbreak infects 73% of population, Yap
2013-2014
- outbreaks in French Polynesia, Easter Island, the Cook Islands, and New Caledonia
2015
- Zika detected in northern Brazil
2015
- epidemiological alert announced as Zika outbreak continues, Brazil
2015
- Suriname, El Salvador, Mexico, Paraguay, and Venezuela, Panama, Honduras, French Guiana, Martinique and Puerto Rico report cases of Zika
2016
- cases of Zika recorded in United States

Zika is only an emerging virus and as of yet we do not understand much about the disease. Clinical research is ongoing in almost every aspect of the disease.

- modes of transmission
- effects (i.e. in microcephaly, Guillian-Barre syndrome, neuropathological syndromes)
- the body defence and how the virus is able to remain in the body after eradication from the bloodstream

Transmission into the United States is likely in the near future
The future for Zika is ongoing and contains wider research and study into exactly what this new virus is. It is very difficult to tell where the Zika virus will go in the future however we are only just beginning to be introduced to this complex epidemic.
How it works
- transmits by injecting its RNA genetic material into cells
- the host cell to accepts the foreign RNA, which is ‘programmed’ to create copies of the original virus cell that injected the RNA.
- these new virus cells then destroy the host cell, thereby releasing the new virus copies into the body

The immune system - defends against infection and toxins
- Our bodies use a sophisticated defence known as 'the immune response' to repel and attack the foreign invaders

- Macrophages destroy foreign cells

- T and B lymphocytes which bind to the virus to stop it from replicating and tag viruses so that other blood cells know to destroy them

- T cells raise the alarm when they detect invading viruses

- B cells to produce antibodies

- A small number of these specialist B and T cells retain an accurate memory of the destroyed virus

Brain inflammation caused by Zika in elderly man
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