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2.1 Pure Substances and Mixtures
Transcript of 2.1 Pure Substances and Mixtures
Matter is either a PURE SUBSTANCE or a MIXTURE Matter Pure Substances Mixtures Pure substances are made up of one type of matter and has a unique set of properties. You cannot seperate them into different substances.
Mixtures are two or more substances combined together. In a mixture each substance keeps its properties. Mixtures can be mechanical mixtures, solutions, and suspentions/ colloids. Mechanical Mixtures Solutions Suspensions and Colliods In a mechanical mixture you can see the different substances that make up the mixture. This is also called a heterogeneous mixture A mixture that looks like one substance or one that you cannot see the different components is called a solution. It is often difficult to determine the difference between a solution and a pure substance without testing the substance. They are sometimes called a homogenous mixture. A suspension is a cloudy mixture in which droplets or tiny particles of one substance are held within another substance. If left undisturbed the particles usually seperate out.
A colliod is also a cloudy mixture but the droplets/ pieces are much smaller and do not seperate out easily. Paper Chromatography Paper Chromatograohy is a test that can be done on fluids to determine if they are a pure substance or a solution. If it a substance is pure it will move up the paper on one level. If it is a solution the different substances will move up the paper to different levels. This is a very efficient way of measuring substances. Reading Chromatographs The filter paper used to test a substance is called a Chromatograph. The water soaks into the paper evenly and eventually dissolves the ink spots. As the water soaks into the paper it carries the ink up with it. The ink will seperate and depending on how well it is attracted the paper it will rise at different rates. The substances with strong attraction to the paper will not move very far up, and those with weak attractions will move up farthest.