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The Civil War
Transcript of The Civil War
Ferman Period 1 22.6 Vicksburg: A Besieged City A Civil War is a conflict between two groups of people in one country The Civil War was the first to battle using armor-plated steamships.
The Confederacy used a ship called the Merrimac.
It was a wooden ship but they covered it in iron plates and they added a powerful ram to its prow.
In 1862, they renamed it the Virginia.
The Union then built its own ironclad ship.
It took less than 100 days to complete it.
They called it the Monitor. Chapter 22: The Civil War Bibliography Quiz Answers Quiz Questions 1. What is another name for a civil war?
2. What was one cause of the Civil War, besides slavery?
3. Who won the Battle of Antietam?
4. What was the Emancipation Proclamation and what did it do?
5. How many months did it take for the Union to get past Petersburg and into Richmond? 1. It is also called "the brothers' war."
2. Economic and Social differences, states vs. federal rights, Abolition Movement, or the election of Abraham Lincoln.
3. Neither army won, it was declared "a defeat for both armies."
4. It was a document that declared all slaves in Confederate states to be free.
5. It took nine months. A Civil War* is the most painful and destructive kind of war. It not only divides states, but friends and family, too. This is why it is also known as the "brothers' war." * The Civil War 1861-1865 4,000,000 freed.
1 nation saved. "The Civil War." 3/07/2013. [http://www.nps.gov/civilwar/index.htm] 3/10/2013. Freeman, Joanne. "Time Line of the Civil War." 1/15/2000. [http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1861.html] 3/10/2013. "History Alive: The United States through Industrialism." Palo Alto, CA: Teachers' Curriculum Institute, 2005. Print. There were five main causes to the Civil War: 2. Economic and Social Differences between the North and the South. 3. States vs. Federal Rights. 1. Slavery and Anti-Slavery. 4. Growth of the Abolition Movement. 5. The election of Abraham Lincoln. There were two sides to the war, the Union and the Confederacy. The Confederacy was made up of Southern states and they supported slavery. The Union was made up of Northern states and they opposed slavery. Slavery was the major cause. 22.5 Gettysburg: A Turning Point The Emancipation Proclamation was a document that declared slaves in all Confederate states to be free. President Lincoln issued this on January 1st, 1863. It took a while for it to take effect because the Confederate states ignored the announcement. In the summer of 1863, the Confederacy lost about a third of their army in the Battle of Gettysburg.
Then the South withdrew to Virginia.
Lincoln used his constitutional power to suspend the right of habeas corpus.
The habeas corpus is the right to give someone a trial before being jailed.
He suspended it because a pro-slavery mob attacked Union soldiers and people who were suspected of disloyalty were jailed without trial.
About four months later, Lincoln traveled to Gettysburg.
Thousands of men who died there were buried in a new cemetery overlooking the battlefield.
They called it Cemetery Ridge.
Lincoln spoke to over 15,000 people there.
The nation will never forget the inspiring words he spoke in his Gettysburg Address. Ironclads were part of the Union's plan to divide the South by taking control of the Mississippi River.
This was a major weakness of the South.
After seizing New Orleans in 1862, they moved up the Mississippi to capture Baton Rouge and Natchez.
While this was going on, other Union ships gained control of Memphis.
The Union now controlled both ends of the Mississippi River.
The South could no longer use it to transport men or supplies along the river.
The North couldn't either as long as the Confederates controlled their key location.
Vicksburg, Mississippi Vicksburg was easy to defend but difficult to capture.
The Confederates were running out of food and supplies and they had to go to drastic measures to survive.
Some of them dug caves into the hillside for shelter and protection.
They had to eat horses, mules, and dried peas to survive.
Vicksburg surrendered on July 4th, 1863.
The Mississippi was now a Union waterway and the Confederacy was officially divided. 22.7 Fort Wagner: African Americans Join the War Congress let African Americans join the war in 1862.
About 186,000 African Americans, many of them former slaves, were enlisted into the Union army.
Another 30,000 were recruited to the Union Navy.
The Massachusetts 54th Regiment was a large group made up of 1,000 black soldiers.
They were paid less than white soldiers and they thought that was unfair.When the black soldiers learned this, they protested.
Corporal James Henry Gooding asked, "Are we soldiers or laborers? We have done a soldier's duty. Why can't we have a soldier's pay?"
Lincoln then urged Congress to grant black soldiers equal pay. The Massachusetts 54th had to attend three months of training.
After that, they were sent to Fort Wagner to battle.
They faced the usual worries of untested troops.
But they had another problem... If they were captured, they might be sold into slavery.
The attack on Fort Wagner was nearly impossible.
To get to the fort, they would have to cross 200 yards of wide open sand.
Cannon and rifle fire poured down on them.
They lost nearly half of their men.
The survivors then pulled back, but their bravery won them the Confederates' respect
.The African Americans fought in many wars and lost countless lives.
They didn't stop fighting.
They kept going to save the Union and end slavery forever. 22.8 Appomattox: Total War Brings an End President Lincoln pronounces General Ulysses S. Grant the new leader of the Union.
General Grant mapped out a plan.
He invaded Virginia with a troop of 100,000 men and lost 18,000.
He then followed General Lee to Cold Harbor and lost about 7,000 men in 15 minutes.
Grant's losses were the same number of Lee's whole army.
Grant was able to recruit more soldiers, but Lee was not. The Union's army was tied down in northern Virginia.
Grant then ordered General Philip Sheridan to wage total war.
In May 1864, General Sherman left with orders to destroy all of their war resources.
In September, he reached Atlanta, the most important rail and manufacturing center.
His army set it on fire.
If the South wanted to be victorious, they couldn't let Lincoln be reelected as President.
The Northern Democrats nominated General McClellan to run against Lincoln.
Knowing the North was weak from war, McClellan ended the conflict.
The victories changed Northern views of Lincoln and he was then reelected in 1864. General Sherman destroyed everything in a 60 mile wide path.
They captured Georgia and then proceeded on to capture both North and South Carolina.
He and his troops marched 425 miles in 50 days, finally reaching Raleigh, North Carolina in March, 1865.
There he waited for Grant's final attack on Richmond.
The armies battled for nine months in Petersburg, the gateway to Richmond.
The Union broke through and marched into Richmond.
On April 9th, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant.
Grant's terms of surrender were generous.
He allowed the Confederates to go home if they promised to fight no longer.
They also were given horses, weapons, and other supplies as they left. Everyone in the Civil War would remember the intensity of the experience.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. wrote, "In our youths, our hearts were touched by fire."
It would take generations to build back the South and grow enough crops to live.
Two fifths of the livestock had been destroyed.
They spent millions of dollars on the conflict and almost every family lost a member or a friend.
More than 620, 000 Union and Confederate soldiers lost their lives.
Thousands more came home injured.
The war tore the country apart but in the end, it made us closer together as a nation.
Before the war, Americans tended to say, "the United States are..." After the war, they said, "the United States is..." This showed how the war brought them closer together as a union. Neither side won the battle of Antietam.
They said it was "a defeat for both armies."
General George B. McClellan led the Union.
General Robert E. Lee led the Confederates.
Of the 75,000 Union troops, 2,100 were killed and 10,300 were either wounded or missing.
Of the 52,000 Confederate troops, 2,770 were killed and 11,000 were either wounded or missing.
Lincoln decided to take his first steps toward emancipation.
Lincoln said the purpose of the war was "to save the Union, and not to save or destroy slavery."
This led to the Emancipation Proclamation. Meanwhile, the North and the South were running out of volunteers to fight in their armies.
The Confederacy then passed the nation's first Draft law in 1862.
The law states that all men ages 18-35 could be forced to fight in the war for three years.
The men could avoid the army by paying a substitute to take their place.
A year later, the North passed a similar law that drafted men ages 20-45.
The law was passed about two months before Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
It created opposition to the war.
This caused a huge draft riot in New York.
They burned draft offices and battled police.
Their major targets were African Americans. * * This is the Monitor today. It was found off the coast of North Carolina.