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Revision Henry VII

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andrew mountford

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of Revision Henry VII

A3 Revision Template Henry VII Topic 1
1) Securing the Throne 1485-1509 Key Historical debate:
Was Henry skilful or fortunate in securing the throne?
How secure was the Tudor dynasty in 1509? Past Paper Questions
1) To what extent was Henry fortunate to both win and keep the throne?
2) How far had Henry consolidated his hold on the throne by 1489?
3) How accurate is it to say that Henry VII’s weak claim to the throne was the most important reason for the rebellions and challenges that were mounted against him? 1) Bosworth - securing the throne
Henry had a fairly weak claim to the throne through his mother M. Beaufort
Failed to land in England in 1483
Pledged marriage to Elizabeth of York 1483
Relied on French support for invasion
Won over Rhys Ap Thomas on landing 1485
Fought effectively at Bosworth and defeated a larger army (8,000 vs 12,000) but was somewhat fortunate 2) Securing the throne after Bosworth
Predated his Kingship to day before Bosworth declaring RIII and his supporters traitors and utilising Acts of Attainders to take their land (HVII attainted 138men and only reversed 46 of these)
Lavish Coronation day before first parliament
Married Elizabeth of York early 1486
Sent Warwick (most direct challenge) to the Tower
Didn’t deal harshly with Richard’s anointed heir – his nephew John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln (the son of his sister Elizabeth + his brother the Duke of Suffolk – they professed their loyalty + were asked to join the council
A key reason for H7’s maintaining power was he secured the service of former Yorkist adherents to the Yorkist kings at court + in his administration. Even those who fought against him at Bosworth were offered the opp to prove their loyalty to the new regime. 3) Revolts in Midlands and Wales 1485-1486
Royal progress to the disaffected areas provoked the required reaction of loyalty and obedience and Henry was seen as an upholder of justice
Minor risings from surviving Yorkists Wales and Midlands
Lord Lovel and the Stafford brothers rebelled in the North - Humphrey Stafford executed but Thomas Stafford pardoned and remained loyal ever after
Vaughans and Herberts rebel in Wales put down by Rhys Ap Thomas (HVII policy of severity toward ringleaders and mercy toward rank and file proved successful) 4) Simnel and John De La Pole (Earl Lincoln) rebellion 1486-1487
Simnel passed off as Earl of Warwick
Went to Ireland where he was proclaimed King of England 1487
Also gained support from Burgundy
Support from Earl of Lincoln
Lincoln's 8,000 troops defeated by Henry's 12,000 at Battle of Newark at East Stoke 1487
Weariness of people for civil strife meant Simnel got little support in Yorkshire
Wild behaviour of Irish soldiers dissuaded some from joining the rebels
Real Earl of Warwick was displayed in London to show that Simnel was an imposter
Had prepared his men for an invasion from IRE and so was ready for rebellion
Handled Stoke rebels harshly 28 attained + lands confiscated, Symonds in prison 5) Warbeck Rebellion 1490s
Warbeck (Frenchman) claimed was Richard
Rebellion dangerous because of potential for foreign support
Support of Charles VIII (Fr) and Maximilian Holy Roman Empire + Scotland
HVII used spy network to gain info and passed Acts of Attainders against Warbeck's supporters in Eng (+executed Stanley his step-uncle)
Failed attempts to land 1495 (Kent) and 1497 (Devon)
Used foreign policy to cut support of Scotland (1497) and France
Captured Warbeck 1497 and executed him 1499 Rebellions in Yorkshire 1489 and Cornwall 1497
Yorkshire rebellion triggered by tax for French war
Earl of Northumberland put their case to the King and was murdered when he returned to Yshire with no positive news
Rebellion defeated by Earl of Surrey - King travelled to North to issue pardon to most of the followers but still failed to collect most of his tax - Surrey appointed Lieutenant of the area for rest of reign and HVII had no more probs
Cornwall rebellion caused by tax to fund war against Scotland
Battle 1,000 deaths
Main threat of these rebellions came from the fact that Henry could not rely on taxation to fund major wars abroad and had to rely on negotiation 1499-1506 Further Threats
Earl of Suffolk (E. de La Pole) surviving threat
After Arthurs death 1502 position looks weak
1504 attainted 51 relatives of Suffolk
1506 Suffolk captured and remained in Tower of London for rest of reign A3 Revision Template Henry VII Topic 2
2) Dealing with the nobility Key Historical debate:
Was Henry consciously anti-noble?
Was Henry innovative in dealing with the nobility? Past paper questions
1) How far did Henry VII deliberately attempt to reduce the power of the nobility during his reign?
2) To what extent did Henry VII strengthen the power of the monarchy during his reign? Henry VII and the nobility
Traditional view that he sought to restore strong monarch and create a 'service nobility' to restore order in society (Great chain of being + theory of obligation)
This has been challenged as historians do not believe he was consciously anti-noble and that instead he followed sensible policies using carrot and stick and the means at his disposal to make sure he was not an under-mighty monarch Political Power of the Nobility
Henry did introduce new laws and expand upon existing laws to constrain the nobility and weaken their direct threat to him - he was willing to accept maintenance of nobility in politics working in conjunction with him
Reduced retaining + used bonds and recognisances + attainders + patronage
Henry relied on trusted servants like Jasper Tudor in Wales and Earl of Surrey in North to keeo order
Use of attainders in 'cat and mouse' way
Promoted 'new men' from lesser backgrounds like Empson and Dudley and Bray
Nobles still helped him govern with Council in North
Clearly more difficult to get rewards criteria was loyalty and hard work (not birth) Economic Power of nobility
Did use financial punishments but did not destroy wealth of nobility
Role of Council Learned in Law (Empson and Dudley) in investigating corrpution + supervised collection of bonds and recognisances
Of 62 nobles 36 bond by bonds and recognisances
Receipts from bonds rose from £3k in 1493 to £35k in 1503
Lord Dacre forced to make bond in 1506 of £2k Military Power
No standing army so nobility played a crucial role in overseeing law and order - retaining continued by controlled much more strictly by Henry
Reduction in number of retainers that magnates kept those broke law made examples i.e 1506 Lord Abergavenny fined £70,550
Passed legislation to tighten royal control over retaining - two laws 1487 and 1504 - 2nd Act outlawed retaining unless for Kings service How Far did HVII restore law and good government?
Increased central control though King's council and Council in Learned Law - promoted 'new men'
Complex network of Justice of Pease and Sheriff's used in local government but carefully appointed
In North continued Northern Council and in Wales promotes Marcher Lords
Avoided calling parliament too often (met 7 times in 24 years) A3 Revision Template Henry VII Topic 3
3) Finance and administration Key historical debate:
Was Henry a greedy miser or simply a careful and prudent King? Past Paper Questions
1) How far was Henry VII’s personal supervision of financial administration the key to his financial success?
2) How far did Henry VII’s financial policies strengthen the power of the monarchy? Money obsessed?
Reputation comes from P. Vergil
Poor years in exile, no experience in financial governance
Knows security of his reign based on financial solvency (example of HVI royal debt)
Royal finances split into ordinary (day-to-day) and extraordinary revenue
Could he increase revenue without alienating elites? Could he leave surplus to heir? Position in 1485
Financially weak
Relied on foreign support for invasion and loans to pay for Coronation
Income from Crown Lands only 1/5th of EIV Shift Power from Exchequer to Chamber
Allowed Exchequer to continue
Increased income from Royal Estates from £12,000 in 1486 to £110,000 by 1509
1487 starts to restore Chamber to centre of govermnet
By 1490s handling excesses of £100,000
Deals with Crown Lands, Profits of Justice, feudal dues, French Pension only customs duties remain with Exchequer Kings Privy Chamber
V. important as a result of growth of the Chamber was Privy Chamber
Treasurer of Chamber had, in reality, become Chief financial officer of the Crown
Held by Sir Thomas Lovell (1485-1492) and Sir John Heron (1492-1521)
Henry VII works alongside his Treasurer of the Chamber - checking account and leaving signature on them Position 1509
Difficult to be fully accurate
Bacon's 1622 claim £2m exaggerated - prob annual revenue of about £113,000
HVII acknowledged as efficient by English Crown still poorer than European Crowns like France
Gone further than any Yorkist King and restored solvency and efficiency
Income now nearly 20X that of nearest noble His Advisers
Sir Reginald Bray Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster administers royal estates efficiently
1492 Chief Financial Adviser to King's Council
Empson + Dudley roles in Council Learned in Learned Law set up in 1495 to defend King's position as feudal Landlord - seen as corrupt and unpopular they were highly effective A3 Revision Template Henry VII Topic 4
4) Foreign Policy Past Paper Questions
1) To what extent did Henry VII’s foreign policy strengthen the English monarchy?
2) To what extent did relations with Spain and Scotland strengthen Henry VII’s security during his reign?
3) How far do you agree that the main aim of Henry VII’s foreign policy was to strengthen his security in England? Key Historical Debate
To what extent was his foreign policy subordinate to his domestic policy? Situation in 1485
Owed his Crown to French support (if he could invade why not someone else?)
1st of a new dynasty with no family dynastic links (marriage etc)
Only France had the power to threaten England and they were in a weak minority government under Charles VIII
Henry's aims were to establish his dynasty and he pursued defensive non-intervention where possible 1485-1492 Negotiated Peace Treaties
Immediate peace with France extended to Jan 1489
Negotiated 3-year truce with James III Scotland in 1486
Commercial treaty with Brittany 1486
1487 Treaty with Maximilian
1489 negotiates Treaty of Medina del Campo with emerging power Spain agreed marriage between Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon 1st Problem: France and Burgundy
1487 France planned to take over Brittany
H7 tried to compromise and tried to mediate between the courts
1488 France defeat Brettons
Henry asserted his claim to French throne, summoned parilament, gathered 26,000 men, crossed the channel and set siege to Boulogne
9 days later Charles VIII offers peace and Treaty of Etaples signed 1492 (Charles agreed to give no support to Warbeck adn pay £5,000 a year French pension but France did gain Brittany) 1493-1502 More successful diplomacy
Simultaneously joined anti-French Holy League and maintained trade relations with France
Truce of Ayton with Scotland (first comprehensive agreement since 1328)
1503 HVII's eldest daughter Margaret married James IV of Scotland
1501 Arthur married Catherine of Aragon 1503-1509 shifting diplomacy
Death of key figures changes situation (Arthur 1502, Queen Elizabeth 1503)
Catherine agrees to marry Henry VIII
1505 Philip of Burgundy does agree to hand over Earl of Suffolk
Henry’s foreign policy after the death of Philip of Burgundy in 1506 showed signs of panic and it lacked a firm direction as it was seen to be merely reactive. His initial aim was to create an anti-French triple alliance with Burgundy and Castile as allies, but he later changed tack to an anti-Spanish alliance. Indeed, he had felt the need to try and mend fences with Ferdinand after rifts developed over Catherine’s dowry and the question marks raised over the status of her marriage to Arthur. He also feared French expansion into the Netherlands so he tried to improve his relationship with Maximilian too, by proposing in 1507 that Mary, his youngest daughter should become Maximilian’s bride. Henry soon realised that this combination was not going to work so antagonism towards Ferdinand increased as did Prince Henry’s objections to the proposed marriage to Catherine. He then sought an alliance with the Low Countries and France in the form of a crusade against the Turks, but in reality it was an anti-Spanish alliance – namely the League of Cambrai. However, when the League of Cambrai finally formed in 1508 Henry was not included. Henry’s so called allies in Europe had side-lined England leaving him feeling humiliated once more. How successful?
Did not have the resources for glorious all-conquering foreign policy
Much of his foriegn policu about cutting support to pretenders
Greatest success was his alliance with new power Spain
Greatest failure toward the end of his reign where his policies re. Low countires and Burgundy appear desperate
By 1509 his regime was clearly secure
Full transcript