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Biochemistry

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by

Anna Becker

on 30 September 2014

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Transcript of Biochemistry

1. Carbon
2. Hydrogen
3. Oxygen
Living things are mostly made up of 3 elements:
7,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
Covalent bonding:

When atoms share
electrons
A Molecule results from two or more atoms bonding covalently. Water is an example. We call the result a
molecule
. Water =
molecule

Ionic bonding:
When two atoms that have either lost or gained
electrons
are attracted to each other because they are seeking to make up for those lost or gained
electrons
. The end product is an
ionic compound.
There are two types of atomic bonding
Atoms: How do they vary?
How do atoms bond?
What is life made of?
Biochemistry
How many atoms do you think are in the human body?
So, what makes an atom small or large?
C, O and H are
elements
that you can find on the periodic table. An
atom
of carbon is the smallest particle of carbon you can get.
If it were any smaller, it wouldn't be carbon.
Lead: Pb
Boron: B
Bigger atoms have more stuff in them...
The center of an atom is called the
nucleus
. All nuclei contain
positively charged
particles called
protons
. Most contain particles that have
no charge
, called
neutrons
. Therefore, the nucleus has a total positive charge. Each element has a different amount of protons in the nucleus. The region of space surrounding the nucleus contains extremely small,
negatively charged
particles called
electrons.
Why does the nucleus have a positive charge?
Some atoms have weird numbers of neutrons, they are called isotopes. Isotopes are named after how many neutrons they have, such as Carbon - 14.
An "A" project: research how carbon - 14 helps archeologists date ancient material! Located in back.
Neutrons
You can find the true number of neutrons in an atom by subtracting the atomic number (number of protons) from the total atomic weight.

The number of the neutrons is not exactly the same as the number of protons every time.
http://htwins.net/scale2/
Covalent Bond
Why do some atoms stick together?
What makes atoms
happy?
Atoms are happy when their

charges

are balanced.

Some atoms
lose
or
gain
an electron (-) through reaction, and then are in search of fixing that imbalance...

These atoms are called
IONS
.
Ions are charged particles because of the imbalance of protons and electrons.
They grab other atoms' electrons to form
Ionic Bonds
Use the periodic table to determine if this is an ionic bond
Hint: how many electrons is Oxygen supposed to have?
Use the periodic table to determine if this is an ionic bond.
Hint: How many
electrons is Cl supposed
to have? How many does
H usually have?
Note: This gets much more detailed,
but you will learn about it in chemistry.
:)
Water: a
Molecule
What is the difference between an atom and a molecule?
Water: a nice molecule that is happy on its own and minds its own business?
It's true that water is a covalent bond between 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, but
it's also a
polar molecule
.
Polar molecules
do not share their electrons equally. They still yearn for that extra electron, but don't need it as much as an
ionic
bond.
So, they are attracted to other
polar molecules
and
ions
.
Non-polar molecules are chill - they don't have a need for more electrons.
With your shoulder partner, put these terms in order from most needy to least needy:

nonpolar molecules
ions
polar molecules

What are they in need of?
Where else does water move?
STOP
How does water behave?
What does it stick to?
In your notebook, write down as many things as you can that you see water sticking to.
Adhesion
- when water sticks to other molecules (raisin)

Cohesion
- when water sticks to itself (outside demonstration)
Why is water important?

What if there is no water?

Is there a place with no water? What's going on there?
What's going on here?
How does water get all the way up there?
http://science.howstuffworks.com/science-vs-myth/what-if/what-if-access-to-clean-water.htm
If you were the
mayor of Las
Vegas, what would you
do about water?
https://news.vice.com/video/water-war-dry-in-detroit
Charge more for water?
Charge taxes for water?
Use tax dollars to make more water?
Methane is non-polar, and is the main ingredient in cow farts. Ever see it
stick to anything?
Our food is made of
Macromolecules

What does
macro
mean?
What is a
molecule
?
Is this a macromolecule?
Why or why not?
How many macromolecules
are in this pile?
So which one makes us fat?

http://www.ksl.com/?sid=15294655
Most doctors agree that eating less makes you lose weight.
When your body doesn't need it, it's stored...
So, if I want to lose weight, what should I eat?
So... Why does it matter what we eat?
anemia is caused by iron deficiency,

So, why does it matter what we eat?
So, why does it matter what we eat?
Rickets - cased by lack of calcium, phosphate and vitamin D
http://htwins.net/scale2/
Take a walk!
Food
Carbohydrate
Lipids
Protein
What does it do for your body?
Fish
0 g
9 g
30 g
Builds Muscle
Find the 8 nutritional labels and complete the chart below in your notebook
Chemical Reaction occurs when there is an observable change after action is taken on a chemical.

Chemical A -
Add food and some water to test tube. Add a few drops of Chemical A. What happens?

Chemical B -
Add food and some water to test tube. Add a few drops of Chemical B. What happens?

Chemical C -
Add food and
NO WATER
to test tube. Add a few drops of chemical C. What happens? (You can do this on a plastic plate as well)

Be careful not to spill chemicals. If you do get some chemical on your skin, take the pass to wash your hands in the bathroom.

As usual, everyone in the group has to have the lab written in their notebooks.
There should be 3 Claims, supported by their own evidence.
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