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HHD U1 Area of Study 1

Understanding Youth Health and Development
by

Megan L

on 26 February 2016

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Transcript of HHD U1 Area of Study 1

UNIT 1:
The health & development of Australia’s youth

AREA OF STUDY 1:
UNDERSTANDING YOUTH HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT
AREA OF STUDY 1...
HEALTH
(WHO Definition)
THE HUMAN LIFESPAN...
MEASURING HEALTH STATUS
INDIVIDUAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE FOUR DIMENSIONS OF DEVELOPMENT
In this area of study students develop an understanding of the concepts of
youth health
and
individual human development.

In investigating these concepts, students explore the
interrelationships
that exist within and between them.

Students also become aware of the differing methods for
measuring health status.
P
HYSICAL
I
NTELLECTUAL
E
MOTIONAL
S
OCIAL
“Health is a state of complete physical, social and mental well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”
LIMITATIONS...
The use of the word “Complete”
Very broad definition
State of well-being is difficult to measure.
LIFE EXPECTANCY...
“An indication of how long a person can
expect to live.
It is the number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age if death rates do not change. "
HEALTH ADJUSTED LIFE EXPECTANCY (HALE)...
“A measure of burden of disease based on life expectancy at birth, but not including an adjustment for time spent in poor health. It is the number of years in full health that a person can expect to live, based on current rates of ill health and mortality."
MORTALITY...
“The number of deaths

caused by a particular disease, illness or other environmental factor.”
INFANT MORTALITY RATES...
Refers to the deaths of live-born children before 12 months of age.
UNDER 5 MORTALITY RATE (U5MR)...
The number of deaths of children under 5 years of age per 1000 live births.
MATERNAL MORTALITY...
Refers to the death of a women during pregnancy or within 42 days of the termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy.
INCIDENCE:
The number or rate of

NEW CASES of a particular condition during a specific time (usually 12 months).

PREVALENCE:
The TOTAL NUMBER or proportion of cases of a particular disease or condition present in a population at a given time.
BURDEN OF DISEASE (BOD)...
“A measure of the impact of diseases and injuries, specifically it measures the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability”.

Measured by a unit called a DALY
(Disability Adjusted Life Years)
DISABILITY ADJUSTED LIFE YEAR (DALY)
“A measure of the burden of disease, one DALY equals one year of healthy life lost due to premature death and time lived with illness, disease or injury".

1 DALY =
1 Year of healthy life lost due to premature death, disease, disability or injury.
PRENATAL...
(Conception - birth)

Begins at fertilisation
Development of body's organs/structures
40 week process
Fastest growing period of the lifespan
INFANCY
(Birth - approx 3YO)

Period of rapid growth
Began to develop motor skills
Can walk/use simple words
Identify familiar people
Play social games
EARLY CHILDHOOD
(3 - 6YO)

Slow and steady growth
Develop social skills and make friends
Become toilet trained
LATE CHILDHOOD
(6 - 12YO)
Slow and steady growth
Many physical/social/emotional/intellectual changes Eg. refining reading/writing/developing memory/refining motor skills/understanding stereotypes
YOUTH
(12 - 18yo)
Rapid growth
Increased independence
Sexual maturity
Social/emotional/intellectual changes
EARLY ADULTHOOD
(18 - 39yo)
Body reaches physical peak (25-30yo)
Steady decline of body systems after 30
Minimal growth, mainly maintenance and repair
Focus on career and life paths
May get married and have children
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
(40-64yo)
Stability in work/relationships
Physical signs of aging (E.g menopause)
New sense of freedom (children growing up)
Can lead to sense of loneliness
May become grandparents during this stage
ELDERLY
(65 - Death)
Change of lifestyle
May encounter alot of grief
Health declines significantly
Begin to reflect on lives
'Describes the gradual changes in an individual's physical, social, emotional and intellectual states and abilities.'
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
'Refers to feelings and moods and the way in which people express, understand and exercise control over them.'
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
'The increasing complexity of behaviour patterns used in relationships with other people
'
PHYSICAL HEALTH...
‘Relates to the efficient functioning of the body and its systems, and includes the physical capacity to perform tasks and physical fitness.'

MENTAL HEALTH...
‘State of well-being in which the individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.’
SOCIAL HEALTH...
‘Being able to interact with others and participate in the community in both an independent and cooperative way.'
APPLYING YOUR KNOWLEDGE...
Ben is a 16 year old boy who has left school to begin a plumbing apprenticeship. How is his development (P.I.E.S) affected?
PHYSICAL...
Missing out on playing sports at school could affect his
motor development
Gaining skills in the workplace may enhance
motor development
INTELLECTUAL...
Ben misses out on traditional
academic development
learnt at school, however will learn a new set of skills
EMOTIONAL...
Identity
will change as he will see himself differently as he gains further skills and responsibilities
SOCIAL...
Learn to
communicate
effectively with a range of people in a professional manner due to his apprenticeship
The graph shows the average rate of growth for James compared to the average male youth

a. Discuss how James' rate of growth differs from the average male.
b. Identify various developmental characteristics (P.I.E.S) that may
occur for youth
c. Discuss how James' physical development may have affected his
social and emotional development.
HEALTH DIMENSIONS (PMS) INTERRELATIONSHIPS...

EXAMPLE:
Maddy aged 16, breaks her leg and is recovering in hospital. While in hospital and during recovery her health could be affected in a number of ways.
Identify how Maddy's health may be affected
PHYSICAL HEALTH:
May be unable to exercise so reduced fitness levels
Could gain weight due to inactive lifestyle
Immune and body systems could be affected
SOCIAL HEALTH...
May make new friends in hospital
Could socialise with doctors etc
May be unable to socialise with friends
MENTAL HEALTH...
May be happy/sad to miss on school
May be sad about missing out socialising
Could feel lonely
May feel like they are a burden
INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT
ACTIVITY...
Outline the possible effects on the health and development of a youth suffering from influenza (flu)

PHYSICAL HEALTH:
MENTAL HEALTH:
SOCIAL HEALTH:

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT:
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT:
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT:
APPLYING YOUR KNOWLEDGE...
Identify two trends evident in this graph in relation to male and female life expectancy?
MORTALITY
APPLYING YOUR KNOWLEDGE...
Identify two trends evident in relation to mortality rates.
EXTEND YOUR KNOWLEDGE...
EXAMPLE
Complete Case Study

GROUP ACTIVITY....
One group to draw an unhealthy person and the other to draw a healthy person. As a class we will discuss what it means to be healthy and what it means to be unhealthy.
DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH...
PHYSICAL
MENTAL
SOCIAL
HEALTH STATUS...
"An individual's or population's overall level of health, taking into account factors such as life expectancy, amount of disability and levels of disease risk factors."
TRENDS
A long term general movement or change in frequency, usually either upwards or downwards.
Period of life of an individual from conception until death
INTERRELATIONSHIP EXAMPLE:
A youths self concept
(Emotional development)
may determine whether they try out for the school sports team. Taking this risk will allow motor skills to develop if they make the team
(Physical development)
INTERRELATIONSHIP EXAMPLE
Youths who succeed academically, may receive praise from their parents, which can enhance self concept

What two aspects of development are related in this example?
DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES
"Changes and achievements that occur throughout the lifespan"

1. What are some milestones for:
- Infants
- Children
- Youth
- Adults

2. Outline what developmental dimension each milestone falls under

3. Create a visual timeline of yourself or another family member from
birth until now. Use words or audio to highlight the developmental
milestones occurring.
BUBBLE GIRL LONELY LIFE

1. How has each of Amelia's dimensions of health
(P.M.S) been affected by her illness
2. Describe the impact the illness would have on all 4
aspects of develpoment (P.I.E.S)
3. Identify one way in which Amelia's health is
impacting and interrelating with her development
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
'The changes that relate to people's size and shape and, therefore, body structure.'
MORBIDITY...
“Refers to ill health in an individual and levels of ill health in a population or group.”
APPLYING YOUR KNOWLEDGE...
1. Define YLL and YLD
2. What does BOD measure?
3. Which diseases were the two leading causes of BOD?
4. Using one of the diseases identified in 3, are there more DALYs due to
death or due to disability
5. Identify the number of DALYs for each of the fatal and non fatal
component for injuries

APPLYING YOUR KNOWLEDGE...
Which sex contributes more to YLD? Suggest reasons for your answer
APPLYING YOUR KNOWLEDGE...
a) Which three conditions lead to the most burden of
disease as shown in table 2.6?
b) For each of the three conditions, explain whether you
think most DALYs would be attributable to mortality or
morbidity.
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
"Also referred to as cognitive development, the ways in which people are able to think and reason."
Suggest ways that this man’s physical and social health could be affected by his current state of mental health.
APPLYING YOUR KNOWLEDGE...
Tom is a year 11 student who enjoys playing football and socialising with friends in his spare time. He has a part-time job that allows him to earn enough money to fund his social life and to save money for a car. In the past few months, Tom has been trying to convince his parents to allow him to leave school and get a job as an apprentice plumber. Tom’s parents have been trying to persuade him to finish year 11 and then try to get an apprenticeship. This issue has caused a lot of conflict within the household. Tom has been feeling stressed about being at home and is therefore avoiding the house as much as possible. In the past week, he has been sleeping at a friend’s house and has not been doing the things that he normally does, including going to his job and playing football.

(a) How has Tom’s
HEALTH
been affected by the conflict with his parents?
(b) Suggest examples from the case study that represent each of the three dimensions of health (physical, social and mental).
(c) Suggest ways that Tom could return his health to an optimal state.
APPLYING YOUR KNOWLEDGE...
Using table 2.1, explain how life expectancy changed from 1901–10 and 2009–11 for:
(a) males at birth
(b) females at birth.
APPLYING THEORY TO KNOWLEDGE...
a. How do death rates change for 10–14 year olds compared with 15–19 year olds?

b. Suggest reasons for this change.
DIMENSIONS OF DEVELOPMENT
EXTEND YOUR KNOWLEDGE ANSWER...
BUBBLE GIRL
CASE STUDY

KEY KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS...
Define
health
and
individual human development
Describe
characteristics
of, and
interrelationships
between the different types of individual development during the
youth
lifespan
Explain
limitations
of
definitions
of
health
Describe the
characteristics
of and
interrelationships
between the dimensions of
health
Explain
health status measurement
terms
Interpret and
analyse data
on the health status of
Australia's youth
using appropriate measurements
Explain the
biological determinants
of health and development and discuss the
impact
on
health
and
development
of youth
Explain the
interrelationships
between
health
and
human development
during the youth stage
YOUTH PHYSICAL
DEVELOPMENT

"Characteristics that develop during puberty related to the development of the sex organs and reproductive system of males and females, enabling them to reproduce."
Rapid physical development triggered by hormones released.
Brainstorm all the physical changes that occur during puberty
"Characteristics that develop during puberty that indicate sexual maturity but are not related to a person's ability to reproduce."

Females
generally
mature earlier
Short
and
stocky youth
tend to
mature earlier
than tall and lean youth
Obesity
or
thinness
may
delay puberty
Environmental factors
may
affect onset
of puberty (E.g. stress/nutrition intake/SES/exercise/illness
FACTORS AFFECTING PUBERTY
RAGING TEENS VIDEO
LEARNING ACTIVITY
Watch the animations and identify what happens to various body parts of male and females during puberty.

WEBSITE....
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/lifecycle/teenagers/
Primary Sex Charcteristics
Secondary Sex Characteristics
PUBERTY
Outline two differences between male and female growth
DEVELOPMENT OF SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS
UNIT 1:
The health & development of Australia’s youth

AREA OF STUDY 1: PART TWO
UNDERSTANDING YOUTH HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT
YOUTH INTELLECTUAL
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Significant advances in intellectual development during youth
Memory
and strategies to remember increased
Reasoning skills increase
as youth begin to see grey areas in probems
Information
can be
processed
more
efficiently
Able to begin to
focus on the future
Vocabulary expanded
Ability to think about possible
consequences of actions

HOW MUCH IS TOO MUCH?
Complete the activity on pg 72 in pairs
YOUTH EMOTIONAL
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Significant changes occur in emotional development during youth
1. Youth may wonder "If I am normal?" and may
become
self conscious
due to all the physiological
changes
.
How may youth deal with these feelings?
2. Hormones released can cause extreme
mood

swings and conflict
, resulting in negative emotions
.
3. As the body matures so does the mind, resulting in
youth seeking emotional independence
(E.g. solving
their own problems)
4. Youth may experience intimacy and
affection and experience emotions such as

love and lust.
5. As a result of being exposed to a range of
emotions you are able to
regulate your
emotions
and act appropriatley.


6. Youth develop an idea of their
values

and the person they have become.
YOUTH SOCIAL
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Interactions
between people outside of family
increases

Many
new relationships
are formed resulting in increased independence

Important to have a
peer group
to support and understand you during this time of huge change

Start to begin to develop their
own values and beliefs
APPLYING YOUR KNOWLEDGE..
.
Identify the leading contributor to YLL for each age group?
MORTALITY
BOD
YLD
YLL
BOD
Factors concerning the body's cells, tissues, organs and systems and how they function
BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT
DETERMINANT:
"Any factor that can increase the chances of ill health
(risk factor)
or good health
(protective factor)
in a population of individual."

HOW DO THESE BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS PLAY A ROLE IN YOUTH
HEALTH
AND
DEVELOPMENT?

’refers to the biological information that is passed down from parents to children at conception.'
At
GREATER RISK
of
INHERITING CERTAIN CONDITIONS
if within the family. E.g. Alzheimers, high blood pressure, some cancers, mental conditions.
FEMALES
are
MORE LIKELY
to get
BREAST CANCER
and
OSTEOPOROSIS
than males.

Only
MALES

get
PROSTATE CANCER
GENETICS AND ITS ROLE ON YOUTH HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT
BODY WEIGHT AND ITS ROLE ON YOUTH HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Being
UNDERWEIGHT
can
WEAKEN IMMUNE SYSTEM
, decrease
BONE DENSITY.

Being
OVERWEIGHT
can lead to long term health conditions such as
CVD,

COLO RECTAL CANCER
arthritis and respiratory problems

Body weight can also lead to mental and social health issues:
Social exclusion
— those who are overweight or obese might be excluded from certain activities by others. They might not be invited to parties or asked to join sporting teams. The individual might also be victimised by their peers, which could have a negative impact on mental health.
Self-esteem issues
— those who are overweight or obese might feel negative about their body, which can influence other areas of their life such as social participation.
HORMONES AND ITS ROLE ON YOUTH HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT
MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
is inherited and may make the youth unable to participate in certain activities due to the
RISK OF INJURY
or
INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ILLNESS.
Females who start
PUBERTY EARLY
may be at
INCREASED RISK OF BREAST CANCER.

Males who start
PUBERTY EARLY
may be associated with I
NCREASED STRENGTH AND SPORTING PROWESS
, which may enhance other areas of health for these individuals (e.g. mental or social health).

Those who
DEVELOP EARLY
may socialise with older people, and some studies suggest that they are
MORE LIKELY TO EXPERIMENT
with drugs and alcohol at an early age which can also impact on health by increasing the risk of injuries.
INSULIN
is the hormone responsible for controlling blood glucose levels. If insulin is not produced or the body’s cells are resistant to it,
DIABETES
may occur. Type 1 diabetes occurs mainly in childhood and youth and is characterised by an inability of the body to produce insulin. If left untreated, DIABETES can contribute to a range of
HEALTH CONCERNS
including cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, limb amputations, blindness and premature death.
TESTOSTERONE

in males is thought to have an influence on their
HIGHER RATES OF RISK TAKING
and ultimately injury compared to females.
Too much
INSULIN
or
TESTOSTERONE
or both is often the cause of
POLY CYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME (PCOS). PCOS
can lead to

Irregular menstrual cycles, Amenorrhoea, Excessive hair growth and acne, Mood changes — including anxiety and depression and Obesity.

Being overweight or underweight could also lead to:
• Missing out on social experiences, resulting in affecting
communication skills

• Developing coping strategies to deal with feelings of
loneliness and affect emotional development

• Being victimised at school, affecting concentration levels and
impacting on intellectual development.
Measured by BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)2 OR Waist circumference

Person is classified as
OBESE
if
BMI over 30
or male waist circumference
(96cm)
and female waist circumference
(88cm)

Person is classified as
UNDERWEIGHT
if
BMI UNDER 20

IMPACT ON HEALTH
IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT
Trend
Full transcript