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Biology 2.3 Carbon Compounds

Miller Levine Dragonfly Book
by

Roxanne Price

on 11 March 2014

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Transcript of Biology 2.3 Carbon Compounds

Carbon Compounds
END OF SECTION
Nucleotides consist of three parts:
a 5-carbon sugar
a phosphate group
a nitrogenous base
Nucleic Acids
Macromolecules
are formed by a process known as polymerization.

Monomers - a molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules to form a polymer

Polymers - A polymer is a large molecule composed of many repeated subunits, known as monomers
Macromolecules
A major difference between polysaccharides and proteins is that
plants make polysaccharides, while animals make proteins.
proteins are made of monomers, while polysaccharides are not.
polysaccharides are made of monosaccharides, while proteins are made of amino acids.
proteins carry genetic information, while polysaccharides do not.
2–3
Which of the following statements about cellulose is true?
Animals make it and use it to store energy.
Plants make it and use it to store energy.
Animals make it and use it as part of the skeleton.
Plants make it and use it to give structural support to cells.
2–3
Proteins are among the most diverse macromolecules because
they contain both amino groups and carboxyl groups.
they can twist and fold into many different and complex structures.
they contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
their R groups can be either acidic or basic.
2–3
Many lipids are formed from glycerol and
fatty acids.
monosaccharides.
amino acids.
nucleic acids.
2–3
Large carbohydrate molecules such as starch are known as
lipids.
monosaccharides.
proteins.
polysaccharides.
2–3
Nucleic acids
are polymers assembled from individual monomers known as
nucleotides
.
Nucleic Acids

What is the function of carbohydrates?
Source of Energy
Provide Structure
Carbohydrates


Four groups of organic compounds found in living things are:

carbohydrates
lipids
nucleic acids
proteins
Macromolecules
The portion of each amino acid that is different is a side chain called an
R-group
.
Proteins
Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Nucleic Acids
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Lipids

Lipids can be used to
store energy
. Some lipids are important parts of
biological membranes

and
waterproof coverings
.
Lipids
Lipids are generally not soluble in water.
The common categories of lipids are:
fats
oils
waxes
steroids
Lipids
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Different sizes of carbohydrates:

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are compounds made up of
carbon
, hydrogen, and
oxygen
atoms, usually in a ratio of
1 : 2 : 1
.
Carbohydrates
Organic chemistry
is the study of all compounds that contain bonds between
carbon atoms
.
The Chemistry of Carbon
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Some functions of proteins:
Control rate of reactions –
Enzymes
Used to form bones and muscles
Transport substances into or out of cells
Help to fight disease -
antibodies
Protein Molecule
DNA
holds the instructions used during protein synthesis for arranging amino acids into many different proteins.
Proteins
Proteins
are macromolecules that both structural and functional characteristics.
Made of monomers called
amino acids
.
Proteins
2–3 Carbon Compounds
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Amino acids
Proteins
Examples:
Cellulose
Starch
Glycogen
Starches
and
sugars
are examples of carbohydrates that are used by living things as a source of energy.
Carbohydrates
A POLYMER is unique because it has
qualities of both a solid and a liquid

it’s molecules are arranged in a long chain.
When the chain of molecules stretches, the goo behaves like a liquid and flows
when it is squeezed, it behaves like a solid
polymers are called non-Newtonian fluids because they don’t behave by Sir Isaac Newton’s rules of solids, liquids & gases
the viscosity, or how easily a liquid flows, changes when you put pressure on it instead of when you heat it.
Polymers
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