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How and Why to DI

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S. Hunt

on 28 July 2014

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Transcript of How and Why to DI

How and Why to Do DI
So What is Differentiated Instruction (DI)?
First and foremost, it is a way to touch each and every student in a way that ensures he or she achieves his or her maximum learning potential.

(difərenSHēˈāSHn (noun): the action or process of differentiating

Differentiated Instruction:
A philosophy and an approach to teaching in which teachers and school communities actively work to support the learning of all students through strategic assessment, thoughtful planning, and targeted, flexible instruction. (Alberta, 2010, p. 2)

Theorists Behind Differentiated Instruction:
Carol Ann Tomlinson
Howard Gardner
Benjamin Bloom
Jean Piaget
CHW3M: World History to the 16th Century
Here are example lessons for CHW3M that you can use to incorporate a variety of DI strategies:
It's Elementary, My Dear Watson
Some Resource Links
Differentiated Instruction: Making Informed Teacher Decisions

Differentiated Instruction: Setting the Pedagogy Straight

Differentiated Instruction: Beginning the Conversation

Differentiated Instruction, Professional Development, and Teacher Efficacy

Culturally Responsive Differentiated Instructional Strategies

Differentiating Instruction: Meeting Students Where They Are

Differentiated Instruction: Begin With Teachers!

Some Other Specific DI Strategies
Tiered instruction
(based on such things as level of complexity, materials provided, time allowed, pacing, number of steps for completion, form of expression)
Multiple points of entry
for tasks and variation in the
number of questions
to be answered
Manageable and appropriate
task choices
(e.g., menu board with "must have" and "pick one or two of five" options)
"RAFT" assignments
- great for History as role-taking enhances understanding from multiple perspectives
"Know, Understand, Do"
- explicitly outline what you want students to know, understand, and do, so they are prepared and focused (then offer a range of ways to reach the goals)
- using a visual cube to look at a topic from six different angles
- students can choose three "in a row" tasks to complete (choices include interpersonal, kinaesthetic, naturalist, logical, intrapersonal, intrapersonal verbal, verbal, musical, and student choice)
"Socratic Seminar"
- students gather in groups to have a conversaton about a text, referring to it as needed, being encouraged to seek clarification, and being empowered to pass when asked to contribute
"Layered Curriculum"
- students complete "C" layer activities of choice, then "B" layer, then "A" layer, with grades correlating with level of task completion
for demonstrating learning (e.g., written or oral)
Using a range of
ongoing formative assessments
to determine individual readiness, interests, and learning preferences
Using a range of available
, including web tools, handhelds, and various software programs
- with students - on what helps to engage them,
and refining
instructional approaches as needed
Alberta Education. (2010).
Making a difference: Meeting diverse learning needs with differentiated instruction.
Alberta: Crown
in Right of Alberta.

Hume, K. (2008).
Start where they are: Differentiating for success with the young adolescent.
Toronto: Pearson Education Canada.

ESA 6 & 7. (2006).
On target: Strategies that differentiate instruction, Grades 4-12.
Rapid City, SD: Black Hills Special Services

Lawrence-Brown, D (2004).
Differentiated Instruction: Inclusive Strategies For Standards- Based Learning That Benefit The Whole Class.

American Secondary Education 32 (3): 34–62.4. Jump up to.

Ontario College of Teachers (OCT). (2014).
Accreditation resource guide.
Toronto: Ontario College of Teachers.

Ontario Ministry of Education. (n.d.).
Reach every student through differentiated instruction.
Toronto: Queen's Printer for

Ontario Ministry of Education. (2007).
Differentiated instruction teacher’s guide: Getting to the core of teaching and learning.
Queen’s Printer for Ontario.

Tomlinson, Carol Ann (1999).
Mapping a Route Toward a Differentiated Instruction.
Educational Leadership 57 (1): 12.3.Jump up

Wolfe, P. (2001). Brain matters: Translating research into classroom practice. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Jump up to: a b Gardner, H. (1983).

Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences.
New York: Basic Books.
Source: Reach every student through differentiated instruction
Source: On target: Strategies that differentiate instruction
10 Reasons Why You Should Do DI
10. Tailors instructions to meet the needs of ALL students
9. Encourages flexibility in the classroom through various forms of activities
8. Using various forms of assessments and pre-assessments
7. Bases instruction on students readiness levels
6. Uses flexible groupings based on levels of achievement
5. Engages ALL learners by acknowledging individual needs and desires
4. Adapts teacher approaches to fit the vast diversity of students
3. Includes respectable activities that engage all learners' strengths
2. Engages ALL students in content, process and product success
And the number one reason why you should do DI:
1. Creates a learning environment conducive to learning for ALL students
Sample Lesson Plan Template for Differentiated Instruction
DI Strategies in Action
Why We Need to Differentiate
The Ways in Which You Can Differentiate
One Last Thing to Think About
As educators certified to teach in Ontario, the Ontario College of Teachers advises that it is our duty to differentiate instruction, and the duty of the institutions that train pre-service teachers to ensure we know how to differentiate.

Regulation 347/02, Accreditation of Teacher Education Programs, requires that a program of professional education provides a student of a program of professional education with knowledge and understanding of how to use learning and teaching theories and methods and differentiated instruction
(Regulation 347/02, Schedule 1, Pedagogical and Instructional Strategies Knowledge).

"The inclusion of content regarding theories of learning and teaching and differentiated instruction is intended to ensure that all students of a professional program of education have a solid understanding of the research-based, evidence-informed pedagogy and the theoretical and empirical foundations for these practices, including cognitive science, developmental psychology, language development, socio-cultural theories and sociology, it is
intended to facilitate the connections between how people learn and teaching methods and to build understanding of the unique learning approaches of individual students as well as the need to develop personalized and precise instruction for all
based upon these bodies of knowledge and pedagogy. It is also intended that students of professional education programs use these theories and practices to build their professional knowledge and identity and develop a strong foundation for professional judgement and making informed decisions regarding practices for students individually and collectively." (OCT, 2014, p. 11)
Differentiated Assessment
Offer a variety of activities to allow students to show what they truly know, incorporating multiple intelligences.
There is one rubric for all activities so that the teacher is assessing the same knowledge and skills.

World History to the Sixteenth Century CHW 3M
Mediterranean Civilizations: From the Rise of the Hellenes to the Fall of the Romans
The Influence of Religion in Ancient Egypt

Available Assignments:

Write the obituary for a pharaoh. Include everything you’d see in a modern obituary, including
family, job descriptions, interests and accomplishments.
Find a song that you think represents religion in Ancient Egypt. Play the song and analyse it using what you
know about the effects of Religion on Ancient Egyptian culture.
Act out a scene that would have occurred in Ancient Egypt. Be sure to include an authentic cast
of characters and touch on some of the religious/cultural ideas of the time.
: Create an Egyptian art piece that represents how Religion affected Ancient Egyptian culture. Orally
or in writing, analyse your piece.
Construct a poem or a song or simply discuss the effects of Religion on Ancient Egyptian culture.

Differentiated Assessment Rubric
Roger Bacon (gunpowder)
Luca Pacioli (Father of Accounting)
Johannes Gutenberg (printing press)
Christine de Pisan (writer); Geoffrey Chaucer (writer)
Joan of Arc (Hundred Year’s War)
Pope Urban II (indulgences)
Pope Innocent IV and Bernard Gui (inquisitions)
Parliamentary Government in England

Ideas, Inventions and Key Figures

War of Investitures (Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV)
Norman Conquests & William the Conqueror (who was crowned King of England and ordered the Doomsday Book)
Magna Carta (king is subject to the law)
Effects of Crusades (military failure but many positive effects (spreading of culture, goods, scientific knowledge, Arabic language and thought, economic growth in rural communities, and trade)

Wars and Conflicts

New royal dynasty called Capetians in France
System of primogeniture= system where eldest son inherited everything (instead of dividing land / property / wealth)
Lords and knights however had little loyalty and began competing more fiercely for land, power, influence and control
Peace of God= a set of decrees issued in 989 CE that prohibited stealing church property, assaulting clerics, peasants and women with the threat of excommunication from Church
were set to protect the unarmed populace by limiting warfare in countryside
Truce of God= set in 1027 CE and outlawed all fighting from Thursday to Monday morning, on important feast days and during religious days
Truce encouraged idea that the only combat pleasing to God was in the defence of Christendom (idea of the righteousness of holy war)
1095 CE Pope Urban II referred to Truce of God when calling knights to the first Crusade in support of Christians
High Middle Ages

Slaves made up of conquered peoples
Some treated harshly, while other were treated fairly
Rural slaves became serfs, who worked the land and provided labour for owner (in return from protection)
Set up for system of feudalism

Slaves and Serfs

Christian Church has become an important political, economic, spiritual and cultural force in Europe
Leading officials of Church were the Pope and Patriarch
Banning of heresy (holding beliefs that contradict the official religion)
conversion by force
Eventually in 11th Century, Church split into two independent branches Eastern Orthodox (Greek) based in Constantinople and Roman Catholic in Rome

Expanding Influence of the Church

(former city of Byzantium) became new capital and control centre for Roman Empire
Was largest city by population in the world west of China
Strategic location on trade routes
One of largest natural harbours in the world linked the east and west
Byzantine gold coin (bezant) was the main currency of international trade
Ruled provinces by Roman model (governors, bureaucracy and imperial army, heavy taxation and favouring of royal family and priests in trade and taxes

From Rome to Constantinople

Period of change in Western Europe as barbarians were migrating in to areas given up by Romans
As more barbarians moved westward, other tribes were forced to move
Groups categorized by languages and little else
Celtic: Gauls, Britons, Bretons
Germanic: Goths, Frank, Vandals, Saxons
Slavic: Wends

Warriors and Warbands in the West

Effects of Crusades
Guild and communes
Towns, cities and manors
New thinkers (Thomas Aquinas) and writers
Creation of universities
New art and architecture (gothic, castles)
Knighthood and chivalry
Courtly entertainment (fables, playwrights)

New Ideas and Culture

Increasing violence and lawless countryside
Weak turn to the strong for protection, strong want
something from the weak
Feudalism = relationship between those ranked in a chain of
association (kings, vassals, lords, knights, serfs)
Feudalism worked because of the notion of mutual obligation,
or voluntary co-operation from serf to noble
A man’s word was the cornerstone of social life

Key terms
Fief = land given by a lord in return for a vassal’s military service and oath of loyalty
Serfs = aka villeins or common peasants who worked the lords land
Tithe = tax that serfs paid (tax or rent)
Corvee = condition of unpaid labour by serfs (maintaining roads or ditches on a manor)


Development of Middle Ages
New languages born through migration, resettlement, conflict and changes
Old English (Anglo Saxon) began to incorporate words borrowed from Latin and Old French, Old German and Old Norse
Roots of contemporary Spanish, Italian and other Romance languages

Birth of Modern Languages

Merovingian is derived from the leader of the tribe of Franks
First dynasty after the Romans and ruled for 300 years
Leader in 481 CE was Clovis I- he united Frankish tribes and expanded territory
His conversion to Christianity won him support from the Church
Clovis I wrote Salic Law - assigned a specific financial value to everyone and everything; concept of trial options (trial by oath and trial by ordeal)
Merovingian's founded and built many monasteries, churches and palaces and spread Christianity throughout Western Europe
IMPACT = Eventually dynasty declined as kings relaxed power and became more like figure heads whereas the real power lay with the powerful officials and leading aristocracy


Byzantine Empire in 6th Century

Dark Ages (500 CE- 1000 CE)- scholars named this as a time when the forces of darkness (barbarians) overwhelmed the forces of light (Romans)
Rise of influence of barbarians as Roman Emperors had granted barbarian mercenaries land with the Roman Empire in return for military service and it was these barbarians who eventually became the new rulers

Early Middle Ages

Called “black death” because of striking symptom of the disease, in which sufferers' skin would blacken due to hemorrhages under the skin
Spread by fleas and rats
painful lymph node swellings called buboes
buboes in the groin and armpits, which ooze pus and blood.
damage to the skin and underlying tissue until they were covered in dark blotches
Most victims died within four to seven days after infection

Caused massive depopulation and change in social structure
Weakened influence of Church
Originated in Asia but was blamed on Jews and lepers

The Bubonic Plague

Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411).

Black Death
a devastating worldwide pandemic that first struck Europe in the mid 14th century
killed about a third of Europe’s population, an estimated 34 million people.

Late Middle Ages

Charlemagne (Charles the Great) who was a military general and
restored Pope Leo III who had been exiled
In return, Leo placed a crown on Charlemagne and named him the
“Emperor of the Romans” which secured the relationship between
Frankish kings and the papacy
Charlemagne became the first ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, a dynasty that would last for more than 700 years
Charlemagne- imposed order on empire through the Church and
Ordered the standardization of Latin, textbooks, manuals for
preaching, schools for clergy and people, new form of handwriting
All these promoted education and scholars and produced a precise
written language (Latin)

The Holy Roman Empire & Charlemagne

Rise of aristocratic Charles Martel who dominated Frankish
kingdom in 8th century
He confiscated land given to Church and began Church reforms
that would restore spirituality to clerical life
His son Pepin the Short continued Church reforms and eventually with the support of reformed Church, removed last Merovingian king from throne
Established the Carolingian dynasty, named
to protect the papacy and establish the pope
and bishops are the makers of kings
Greatest legacy was Charles the Great, or


Byzantine Emperor
goal to reunite the Roman world as a Christian Empire and suppressed all paganism
Ordered the codification of Roman laws in the Justinian Code or “Body of Civil Law” that defined civil law in the Middle Ages and the modern world
Crushed the Nika Riot with the help of his wife Theodora
During his reign Latin was the official language of the Byzantine Empire, but was later changed to Greek (another difference between two regions)

Justinian the Great
(ruled 527-565 CE)

Monks were people who gave up worldly possessions and devote themselves to a religious life
Established between 400 -700 communities called monasteries which became centres of education, literacy and learning
Strict codes of monastic conduct called Rule of St. Benedict
Saints- one who performs miracles that are interpreted as evidence of a special relationship with God
St. Augustine- wrote “Confessions” which discussed ideas of ethics, self knowledge, and the role of free will which shaped monastic tradition and the influence of Church
Monasticism and Saints

Church was granted favours by Roman Emperors / Kings (land, exemption from taxes, immunity in courts, positions in courts) and in return the Church would endorse kings to help secure their rule
Kings looked to Church to supply educated administrators to help run kingdoms and in return kings would enforce laws that prohibited other religions
You scratch my back…
I’ll scratch yours….

The beginning…Early Middle Ages

Decline of Roman Empire
Rise of Northern Europe
New forms of government
Heavy “Romanization” (religion, language, laws, architecture, government)
Latin- “medium aevum” means “middle age” and is source of English word “medieval”

The Middle Ages

Brought to you by:
Jennifer Donais
Stacey Hunt
Alissia Fulvia Salciccioli
Dawn Marie Worton
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