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Carboxylic Acids

Chem 2

Emily Rudolph

on 18 May 2010

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Transcript of Carboxylic Acids

Carboxylic Acids Rachel Paz and
Emily Rudolph What are Carboxylic Acids? Compounds that contain a COOH functional group. Examples * Red represents the carboxylic group COOH that is found in all carboxylic acids. Naming your Acid Add the suffix "oic acid" to the end of the root name. Example:
6-carbon carboxylic acid would be Hexanoic Acid. Structure The oxygen atom is attached to the carbon by a double bond
The OH is attached to the carbon atom with a single bond
The carboxyl group is joined to another hydrogen atom or to the end of an organic compound Properties Soluble in water
Have higher boiling points than alcohols
Solutions are usually sour tasting (like most acids)
React with alkalis, or bases
Are generally not as chemically active as the nonorganic mineral acids
Some have very long, unbranched chains of 12-24 carbon atoms with when attach create fatty acids.
Relatively easy to convert to esters (derivatives of carboxylic acids)
Fatty Acid Uses Carboxylic acids have so many uses in our bodies and world. Fatty Acids They are important in the formation of fat in our bodies.
They are also one of the most important industrial applications.
Fatty acids are carboxyl groups attached to long carbon chains-making soaps, detergents, plastics, crayons, greases, and shampoos.
In some compounds the hydrogen atom in the carboxyl group is neutralized by the reaction with a base, to form the metal salt of the fatty acid.
The modified carboxyl group is soluble in water, while the long chain of carbons remains soluble in fats, oils, and greases.
This double solubility allows water to wash out the fat and oil based dirt.

Many carboxylic acids are present in the foods and drinks we ingest.
Malic acid (found in apples), tartaric acid (grape juice), and oxalic acid (spinach).
Two other simple carboxylic acids are Propionic acids and Butyric acid.
Propionic acids are responsible for the flavor and odor of Swiss cheese.
Butyric acid is responsible for the smell of rancid butter and the smell of sweat.
Ascorbic acid is a type of Vitamin C and is a carboxylic acid. Foods Body Lactic acid is made in the muscles as the individual cells metabolize sugar and do work.
A build up of lactic acid is caused by overexertion
This is responsible for the fatigue one feels in the muscles by such short-term use
When the body rests the lactic acid is gradually converted to water and carbon dioxide, and the feeling of fatigue passes.
Other Uses Carboxylic acids are manufactured for uses in pharmaceuticals, leather tanning, textile dyeing, plastics, lacquers, and solvents.
Amino acids are a special form of carboxylic acids that also have a nitrogen-containing group.
This group is called an amine group in the molecule.
Amino acids are important because combinations of amino acids make up proteins.
Proteins are one of the three major components of the diet, the other two being fats and carbohydrates. Formic Acid The simplest of the carboxylic acids, it is used in processing textiles and leather.
First isolated from certain ants.
The formula for Formic acid is:

Formic acid freezes at 8.4 degrees C (47.1 degrees F) and boils at 100.7 degrees C (213.3 degrees F)
In pure form it is a colorless, fuming liquid with a pungent odor.
Formic acid is not a typical carboxylic acid; it's distinguished by its acidic strength, failure to form an anhydride, it's reactivity as a reducing agent.
Acetic Acid The most important carboxylic acid it's used in the preperation of metal acetates, in some printing processes, vinl acetate, and the production of plastics.
Volatile organic esters, such as ethyl and butyl acetates, are used as solvents for paints and lacquers.
Biologically Acetic acid is an important metabolic intermediate.
It occurs naturally in body fluids and plant juices.
Pure acetic acid, often called glacial acetic acid, ir a corrosive, colourless, liquid.
Boiling point 417.9 degrees C (244.2 degrees F)
Melting point 16.6 degrees C (61.9 degrees F) The End
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