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AP US History Project

Mid-Term
by

Victoria Hanley

on 15 December 2013

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Transcript of AP US History Project

Jamestown 1607
-Established by Virginia Company of London to be a profitable town that exported goods back to England
-John Winthrop attempted to make Massachusetts into a holy city that would serve as a model for the rest of the world
Mercantilism
-Mercantilists believed the nation's economic health depended on extracting as much wealth from foreign lands and exporting as little wealth from home as possible
Pilgrims/ Puritans
Image by Tom Mooring
Bacon's Rebellion
AP US History Review
-Nathaniel Bacon lived in back country of Virginia, where Indians had rights to the land
-John Rolfe began planting tobacco and it became a major export crop.
-Headrights were land grants given out to settlers in an effort to recruit new settlers and workers to the colony.
those living in the colony received 100 acres

"City on a Hill"
-Mayflower Compact established a civil government and proclaimed their allegiance to the king
signed by male passengers
-The Halfway Covenant was a practice among New England Congregationalists that permitted baptized persons to enjoy the privileges of church membership
-Sought freedom and the right to worship without the interference of England's established churches
-Governor Berkeley ignored complaints and the Doeg tribe attacked and killed a white servant
Bacon lead rebellion with local whites
-Led to the increased use of African slaves instead of indentured servants
nation as a whole was the principal actor in the economy
-Offered benefits to the colonies by providing them with a ready market for the raw materials they produced
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-Salutary Neglect a British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws
meant to keep the colonies obedient to Great Britain
Robert Walpole
-Initiated Salutary Neglect
French and Indian War
-British prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains with the Proclamation of 1763
The Great Awakening
-Began in the 1730s and brought a new spirit of religious fervor to the colonies
Deism
-Philosophy based on the idea that God created the universe but does not intervene in human affairs
Benjamin Franklin
Declaration of Independence
-stated that governments were formed to protect the rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
effort to control white settlement into Indian lands to prevent conflict
-Sugar Act 1764 taxed sugar imported into the colonies
-Stamp Act of 1765 taxed legal documents, publications, and cards
-Townshend Revenue Acts of 1767 taxed tea, lead, paper, and glass
-After the war, British forced the colonies to help pay for the debt of the war
end of Salutary Neglect
appealed to women
-Revival emphasized the potential for every person to break away from the constraints of the past and start new in his or her relationship with God
-Led to the division of congregations between "New Light" revivalists and "Old Light" traditionalists
Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson were Deists
-Helped develop a humanistic approach to religion in America
important in the Second Great Awakening
listed alleged crimes of the king who had violated his "contract" with the colonists
-"All men are created equal"
-The declaration was an attempt by the colonists to establish their own government independent of great Britain
Revolutionary War
-British surrender at Saratoga became a turning point in the war
Articles of Confederation
-Continental Congress had limited power over individual states
British Violations of Treaty of Paris
Land Ordinance of 1785
-Law passed by Congress that allowed for sales of land in the Northwest territory
Land Ordinance of 1785
confirmed the weak central government
-Daniel Shays and other poor farmers suffered under the harsh taxes needed to pay off war debt
demands included paper money, tax relief, a moratorium on debts, the relocation of the state capital, and the abolition of imprisonment for debt
Shay and his rebels advanced on Springfield, hoping to seize weapons from an arsenal but were met by an army of state militia
Shays Rebellion was a failure
Daniel Shay
-British occupied American territory in the Great Lakes region
refused to return confiscated slaves
Land Gain
led to an alliance between US and France
-Through the use of a fictional trading firm and secret agents, France began providing Americans with supplies
-France recognized the United States as a sovereign nation
provided a navy, money, and munition
The American Revolution
-Provided land in the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley regions for settlement
later broke into Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Ohio
set up standards for land sale that became precedents
---------------------------------------------------
those who paid for passage of immigrants received an additional headright for each new arrival
Constitution
Founding Fathers Attitude Toward Political Parties
Bill of Rights
Washington's Neutrality Proclamation
Washington's Farewell Address
Alien and Sedition Act
Election of 1800
Louisiana Purchase
Marbury v. Madison
Cult of Domesticity
War of 1812
Hartford Convention
Lowell System
Missouri Compromise
Eli Whitney
Monroe Doctrine
American System
Early 19th Century Authors
Tariff of Abomination
Nullification Crisis
Land Ordinance of 1787
Andrew Jackson
Irish Immigration
Transcendentalism
Mexico
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Manifest Destiny
Popular Sovereignty
Kansas-Nebraska Act
William Lloyd Garrison
Dred Scott Case
Lincoln / Republican Policy on Slavery in 1860
Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation
The Civil War: Crash Course US History
War of 1812: Crash Course History
Age of Jackson: Crash Course US History
The Constitution: Crash Course US History
Hamilton's Economic Policies
Henry Clay
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
Compromise of 1850
Seneca Falls Convention
John Brown
-Monroe was the most important contributor
all power at all levels of government flowed from the people
distribution of powers between the national and state governments
-Federal governments to have broad powers including the power to tax, to regulate commerce, and to control currency
-Separation of Powers
legislative, executive, and judicial
-Ratification fight between Federalists and Antifederalists
Federalists such as Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, and Alexander Hamilton supported the Constitution
Antifederalists opposed the Constiution
-Essential to legitimize the new government in the eyes of its opponents
-10 Amendments ratified by the states in 1791
9 Amendments placed limitations on Congress by forbidding it to infringe on certain basic rights
freedom of religion, speech, and press
1. Pay off national debt and have the federal government assume the war debts of the states
2. Protect industries and collect adequate revenues by imposing high tariffs on imported goods
3. Create national bank for deposited government funds
Jefferson's support for US government to pay off national debt
-Washington believed the US was not strong enough engage in European war
French Revolution
-1793 Washington issued the Proclamation of US neutrality
-Alien Act placed new obstacles in the way of foreigners who wished to become American citizens
strengthened presidents hand in dealing with aliens
discouraged immigration and encouraged some foreigners already in the US to leave
-Sedition Act allowed the government to prosecute those who engaged in "sedition" against the government
used to arrest and convict 10 men, most of them Republican newspaper editors whose crime had been to criticize the federal government
-Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions argued that the federal government had been formed by a contract among the states and possessed only certain delegated powers
if states decided that the central government had exceeded its powers, they had the right to "nullify" the law
-Peaceful transfer of power from one political power to another
Federalists to Democratic Republicans
-John S. Adams leaves the presidency as Thomas Jefferson enters
-Called the "Revolution of 1800"
-Napoleon of France lost Haiti and was at war with Great Britain
offered Louisiana Territory to the US for $15 million
-Doubled the size of the United States
-Jefferson had a vision of an agrarian society
new land was perfect for farming
-William Marbury had been named a justice of peace in the District of Columbia
commission had not been delivered to him before Adams left office
When Jefferson became president, new secretary of state, James Madison, was responsible and refused to hand over the commission
-Marbury appealed to the Supreme Court
Court found that Marbury had a right to his commission but that the Court had no authority to order Madison to deliver it
-Established Judicial Review
-Women were supposed to be perfect in virtue, delicate, and passive
-Women were expected to take care of the children and the home
raise children to be role models in society
cook and clean
-Encouraged to take jobs as teachers
-Power within society declined while power within the home increased
-British impressment of Americans
-US hopes to gain Canada
-Britain arms Native Americans in effort to turn them against the US
-War Hawks encourage war with Great Britain
-December 1814 - January 1815
-New England considers secession
-Demand compensation for lost business during the War of 1812
-Proposed amendments for the Constitution
2/3 vote to pass embargo, war, and entrance of a state
presidents serve one term
-Lowell, Massachusetts 1832
-Relied heavily on young, unmarried farm women
lived in clean boardinghouses and dorms
well fed and carefully supervised
strict curfews and regular church attendance
-Wages were generous by the standards of time
-System declined as wages declined, hours of work lengthened, and housing conditions deteriorated
-Women organized union
Factory Girls Association
-Maine admitted into the US as a free state
-Missouri admitted into the US as a slave state
-Prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase territory north of the southern boundary of Missouri
36 30' parallel
-Revolutionized cotton production and weapon manufacturing
-1793 invented the cotton gin
made it easier to remove seeds from cotton
cotton production increased
provided incentive to entrepreneurs in New England to develop an American textile industry
-Invented interchangeable parts
tasks could be divided among workers
made each part of a gun by an exact pattern
-Primarily the work of John Quincy Adams
-Declared that the American continents not be considered for future colonization by European powers
US would consider any foreign challenge as an unfriendly act
would turn to war with great Britain if doctrine wasn't followed
isolationism
-Henry Clay's program for internal improvements and economic development
1. Tariff to promote and protect American industry
2. National Bank to foster commerce
3. Federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other internal improvements to develop profitable markets for agriculture
-Roosevelt Corollary was articulated by president Roosevelt in 1904
US will intervene in conflicts between Europe and Latin America
Erie Canal
-James Fenimore Cooper was known as a master of adventure and suspense
writing evoked the American wilderness
-Walt Whitman was a self-proclaimed poet of American democracy
poems were an unrestrained celebration of the liberation of the individual and of the pleasures of the flash and spirit
-Herman Melville wrote
Moby Dick
-Edgar Allan Poe produced poems and stories that were sad and troubled
-Ralph Waldo Emerson devoted himself to writing and teaching the elements of transcendentalism
-Mark Twain wrote of travels down the Mississippi River
Adventures of Tom Sawyer
-1828 raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods
protected the North but harmed the South
South claimed it was discriminatory and unconstitutional
--------------------------------------------------------
Salutary Neglect
-Legislature voted to nullify the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 and forbid the collection of duties in South Carolina
-Jackson insisted that nullification was treason
ordered warships to SC
-Henry Clay devised a compromise by which the tariff would be lowered gradually so that by 1842 it would reach the same level as in 1816
SC elected Hayne to as governor and Calhoun to replace Hayne as senator
-Indian Removal Act of 1830
Indians east of the Mississippi forced to move west
-Removed property qualifications for voting
increased voter turnout
opened Indian land to white settlement
"Trail of Tears"
-Believes the National Bank is monopolistic and unconstitutional
1832 vetoed the extension of the 2nd National Bank
-Removes government money from the Bank of the US
puts it in state banks ("pet banks")
hires and fires until he gets what he wants
-1850 the Irish constituted 45% of the foreign born population
oppressiveness and unpopularity of English rule drove people out of Ireland
"potato famine" of 1845-1849
-Irish settled in eastern cities and contributed to the unskilled labor force
-Most were young, single women
-----------------------------------------------
Nativists
-Defense of native-born people and a hostility to the foreign born
desire to stop or slow immigration
-Became known as the Know-Nothing Party as they entered politics
gained success in casting a large vote in the elections of 1854
-New England writers and philosophers
-Embraced a theory of the individual that rested on a distinction between what they called "reason" and "understanding"
goal should be liberation from the confines of "understanding" and the cultivation of "reason"
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
-Tensions rose from ties of the US immigrants into Texas
desire to legalize slavery
Mexican government had made it illegal in Texas
-Santa Anna enacted a new law directed at Texas that increased the power of the national government of Mexico at the expense of the state governments
-Mexican forces annihilated an American garrison at the Alamo mission in San Antonio
defense by group of Texas patriots included Davy Crockett
-After battle at San Jacinto, Santa Anna surrendered and forced to sign a treaty giving Texas independence
--------------------------------------------
Election of 1844
-Democrats nominated James K. Polk, a supporter of Texas annexation
-Whig candidates avoided the issue of the annexation of Texas
Henry Clay against expansion
-February 2, 1848 Mexico agreed to cede California and New Mexico to the United States
acknowledged the Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas
-US promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico
pay Mexicans $15 million
-God given right to expand
-North views this as the South's attempt to spread slavery
-Aroostook "War" of 1839
boundary war between Canadian region of New Brunswick and Maine
Webster-Ashburton Treaty settled the boundary
-The Oregon Trail
-The Oregon dispute over joint British-US occupation
54' 40 or fight!
-Free Soil Party emerged from Whigs and Democrats
opposition to the extension of slavery in new territories due to job competition
-Gadsden Purchase made in hopes of building a transcontinental railroad
-Allowed the people of each territory to decide the status of slavery there
acted through their legislature
Kansas and Nebraska
-Stephen A. Douglas asserted that the status of slavery in the Nebraska Territory would be determined by territorial legislature
popular sovereignty
repealed Missouri Compromise
-Divided the region into two new territories instead of one
Kansas and Nebraska
attempt to appeal to the South
-California admitted into the US as a free state
-Strengthened Fugitive Slave Laws
-Abolished the slave trade in Washington DC
tips balance of free and slave states
-Organized by Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Stanton, and Lucretia Mott
discuss women's rights
-" Declaration of Sentiments" stated that all men and women were created equal
-Demanded the right to vote
-Rejected the idea that men and women should be assigned separate spheres in society
-Founded his own weekly antislavery newspaper in Boston called the
Liberator
-Opponents of slavery should reject "gradualism" and demand the immediate, unconditional, universal abolition of slavery
wanted to extend to African Americans all the rights of US citizenship
-Founded the New England Antislavery Society in 1832
American Antislavery Society in 1833
-Dred Scott, a slave, sues for his freedom when his owner dies in the free state of Illinois
widow's brother attempts to clam rights to Scott
court rules that he has no right to sue because he is property and not an American citizen
-Missouri Compromise ruled unconstitutional
government cannot restrict the expansion of slavery
-John Brown and sons gathered followers and murdered 5 anti-abolitionists in one night
left the bodies to discourage others
Pottawatomie Massacre
-"Bleeding Kansas" became a symbol of sectional controversy
-Raid on Harper's Ferry in 1859
attempted slave revolt
tried to distribute weapons to slaves but slaves refuse to participate
Robert E. Lee captures John Brown and he is hanged
-Prevent the spread of slavery into new territories or free states
Causes
-Economic and social differences between the North and the South
-States versus federal rights
-Conflict over slavery
-Abraham Lincoln is elected president and South Carolina secedes
South
North
Advantages
Disadvantages
-large population
-had to conquer large territory
-offensive
-US Navy
-Established central gov.
-Abraham Lincoln
-defensive
-easy access to supplies
-motivation
-coastline difficult to blockade
-weak central gov.
-poor transportation
-Initial sympathy towards the Confederate from Britain and France
relied on cotton
France unwilling to take sides unless England did
-After Emancipation Proclamation, Britain sided with the Union
-Signed by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863
-Declared freedom to all slaves in the Confederacy except those under Union control
did not apply to the border states
-Established that war was also being fought to eliminate slavery
thousands of free slaves flocked to Union forces
-Stopped Britain from joining the war
-Did not desire the existence of political parties
dangerous to the public interest
-Under republican ideology, politics were supposed to be rational and collaborative, not competitive
-First political parties began to emerge while George Washington was president
convinced that political parties would destroy representative government
no place for political parties in American democracy
-In a letter to "Friends and Citizens", Washington warned that the forces of geographical sectionalism, political factionalism, and interference by foreign powers in the nation's domestic affairs threatened the stability of the Republic
urged Americans to subordinate sectional jealousies to common national interest
don't disturb slavery in the states where it exists
-Extension of slavery into the South and West would inhibit "free labor on free soil"
-Lincoln was politically attacked as an abolitionist
did not consider himself one
Bacon's Rebellion
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