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Art History Timeline

For unit level 3 Fine Art, graphics and textiles
by

Adham Mughal

on 4 December 2013

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Transcript of Art History Timeline

Introduction
STONE
AGE
ERA
Art History Timeline
Within this presentation I am going to be exploring a vast amount different types of
art linked with their time period. Furthermore I will be finding out what happened during these periods and how different events affected the art what was produced.

The major event that happened during the stone age ERA
The three stone age periods
Stone age art is art that was produced during the stone age there are many different styles of stone age art and vast variety.

The first known period of prehistoric human culture, during which work was done with stone tools. The period began with the earliest human development, about 2 million years ago. It is divided into three periods, which are Paleolithic period,Mesolithic period and the Neolithic period.
The Paleolithic period, or Old Stone Age, was the longest phase of human history. Its most outstanding feature was the development of the human species. Paleolithic peoples were generally nomadic hunters and gatherers who sheltered in caves, used fire, and fashioned stone tools. Their cultures are identified by distinctive stone-tool industries. By the Upper Paleolithic there is evidence of communal hunting, constructed shelters, and belief systems centering on magic and the supernatural. Rock carving and paintings reached their peak in the Magdalenian culture of Cro-Magnon man.
Paleolithic Period
The Mesolithic period, or Middle Stone Age, began at the end of the last glacial era, over 10,000 years ago. Cultures included gradual domestication of plants and animals, formation of settled communities, use of the bow, and development of delicate stone microliths and pottery.
The Mesolithic period
The time periods and cultural content of the Neolithic period, or New Stone Age, vary with geographic location. The earliest known Neolithic culture developed from the Natufian in Southwestern Asia between 9000 and 7000 BCE. People lived in settled villages, cultivated grains and domesticated animals, developed pottery,spinning, and weaving, and evolved into the urban civilizations of the Bronze Age. In Southeast Asia a distinct type of Neolithic culture cultivated rice before 2000 BCE .
The Neolithic period
Ice age art work
One day 25,000 years ago at a place now called Kostenki on the river Don in Russia, someone prepared a section of mammoth ivory and began to work it into the shape of a pregnant woman. That "someone" may have been a woman, and it would have taken her longer than a day because ivory is a difficult material. Whatever it was for, whatever it denoted, the little figure was eventually placed in a pit, where it remained, until rediscovered in our own times.
In the first room is a small gathering of little figurines like small, nugget like pieces three or four inches high, worked in the round and showing women's bodies. Made of stone or bone or ivory, some are slender and depict young women in the early stages of pregnancy. Others show older women, weighted with huge, low-slung breasts, wide backsides, tapering legs. The heads are bent in a manner almost demure, or perhaps it's the infolded attitude of pregnant women. Many actually do show women in the late stages of pregnancy, when one's body is exaggerated and unrecognizable even to yourself.
Name: Adham mughal
Teacher: Sharon Drysdale
Year: 1 Graphics
Fashion and textile during the stone age era
Interior during the stone age era
The fact that the new cultivation of crops during the Neolithic Revolution led to the transition from a hunter-gatherer band of tribes to settling communities with stable food supply.

In the neolithic age; people started farming, building communities, producing goods and trading.
Stone Age figurines of women from several European locations wearing “string skirts” (3,000 to 20,000 B.C.).
Scientists have pored over thousands of ancient fragments of fired and unfired clay, and have found impressions of early textiles on a number of them, the oldest dating to 29,000 B.C. But the researchers believe that textile manufacture far predates this time period and estimates that weaving and cord-making probably goes back to the year 40,000 B.C. ''at a minimum,'' and possibly much further.
Stone age fashion
Stone age textile
The figurines that were discovered in the current excavations at Tel Moza join other unique finds that were previously exposed at this site. We can conclude from these artifacts that the site at Tel Moza was most likely the largest of its kind in the mountainous region around Jerusalem.
Shown above is an artist’s conception of a Mesolithic house. At Mount Sandel, County Derry, archaeologists have found evidence of circular huts which were constructed about 7000 BCE. These huts had been constructed by placing the butt-end of a sapling in a hole and bending it over to meet the upper end of an opposing sapling. This structure was then covered with skins. Before building the structure, the sod had been stripped away and then a wall of sod, perhaps a meter high, was built around part of the circumference.
1: Stone Age
2: Mesopotamia
Artist during the stone age
Examples of stone age art
NEXT STAGE
The major event that happened during the Mesopotamian
ERA
Fashion and textile during the Mesopotamian era
Interior during the Mesopotamian ERA
Mesopotamian fashion
Mesopotamian textile
Artist during the Mesopotamian
ERA
Examples of Mesopotamian art
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MESOPOTAMIA
ERA
What is stone age art
What is the Mesopotamia art
Mesopotamia is the source of the earliest surviving art; these civilizations were situated between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers. Dating back to 3500 B.C.E., Mesopotamian art was intended to serve as a way to glorify powerful rulers and their connection to divinity.


Art was made from natural resources such as stone, shells, alabaster and marble, and was often created as didactic pieces. No artist signatures can be found on most of the work, because the pieces were meant to embody the subject matter, rather than the creator. Popular items that typify this time period include cylindrical seals, steles, narrative relief sculptures, and lavishly decorated tombs.
Mesopotamia was first home to villages in the Neolithic period of around 6,000 BC. Permanent mud brick residential structures were being constructed before the U baid period at southern sites such as Tell el-Oueili, as well as Ur, Eridu, Telloh, and U baid. At Tell Brak in northern Mesopotamia, architecture began appearing at least as early as 4400 BC. Temples were also in evidence by the sixth millennium, in particular at Eridu.
Mesopotamia Advances
Although the earliest civilizations used animal skins to protect themselves from the environment, people soon learned how to pound wool and goat hair into felt or weave it into cloth. Wool was the most common fabric used to make clothing in Mesopotamia and was used for practically every type of garment from cloaks to shoes. Looms for weaving fabric were in use as early as 3000 B.C.E. The skill of early weavers is extraordinary. Some fragments of linen discovered in royal tombs are almost as finely woven as modern-day linen fabric. Linen was a more luxurious fabric and was woven for the clothing of the wealthy, priests, and to adorn statues of gods. Other finely woven fabrics also became available for the wealthiest in Mesopotamia. Soft cotton was introduced in Assyria around 700 B.C.E. , and silk became available later.
Trading started in Mesopotamia when farmers learned how to irrigate their land, once they grew more food then they could eat, farmers used surplus food for trading. Other foods Mesopotamia's traded were grains such as flax, oils and textiles (cloth or goods made by weaving, knitting or felting). In return Mesopotamia's received items such as timber, wine, precious metals and stones. These trade items were used for mostly building transportation, but to also improve their civilization by building more buildings.
(Example of a Mesopotamian like dress)
(Example of some Mesopotamian textile)
Very little furniture survives from ancient Mesopotamia, principally because climatic conditions are not conducive to the preservation of wood. What is known has been learned principally from reliefs and cylinder seals. Furniture mounts of bronze and ivory have been excavated, however, and fragments of furniture were uncovered in the royal tombs at the city of Ur, in ancient Sumer. In quality of craftsmanship and decoration, Mesopotamian furniture was comparable to that of Egypt.
Here is what it would of looked like furniture was to survive the horrible weather conditions.
The Mesopotamians consumed barley bread, onions, dates, fruit, fish, lamb, fowls, honey, ghee and milk. Sometimes the best cuts of meat were given to the gods. The Bible refers to people in Abraham's time eating pottage made from red lentils. Major crops included barley, dates, wheat, lentils, peas, beans, olives, pomegranates, grapes, vegetables. Pistachios were grown in royal gardens in Babylonia. See First Villages Agriculture, Livestock
The oldest known recipe dates back to 2200 B.C. It called for snake skin, beer and dried plums to be mixed and cooked. Another tablet from the same period has the oldest recipe for beer. Babylonian tablets now housed at Yale University also listed recipes. One of the two dozen recipes, written in a language only deciphered in the last century, described making a stew of kid (young goat) with garlic, onions and sour milk. Other stews were made from pigeon, mutton and spleen.
Mesopotamian food
The oldest Mesopotamian recipe
Mesopotamian technology
The Mesopotamia's were a very advanced society for their time, they invented the wheel, irrigation system (toilets), lens, glass, number 0, lock and key, law (Hammurabi Code of Laws), sun-dial, chariot, helmet, chariot, soap, and various important inventions. They also divided the day into 24 hours, and divided the circle in 360 degrees, 60 minutes, and then into 60 seconds. They had "invented" the Pythagorean Theorem before Pythagoras claimed it as his own. They also divided the week into 7 days, due to the number of planets they had discovered. The Mesopotamia's were credited with the ideas of Astrology as well. The Mesopotamia's were truly advanced for their time.
3: Egyptian
4: Greek
5: Hellenistic
The major event that happened during the Ancient Egyptian
ERA
Fashion and textile during the Ancient Egyptian era
Interior design in ancient Egypt
Ancient Egyptian fashion
Ancient Egyptian textile
Artist during the ancient Egyptian ERA
Examples of ancient Egyptian art
NEXT STAGE
Ancient Egyptian
ERA
What is ancient Egyptian art
Ancient Egyptian technology
Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization in the lower Nile Valley from 5000 BCE to 300 AD. Ancient Egyptian art reached a high level in painting and sculpture, and was both highly stylized and symbolic. Much of the surviving art comes from tombs and monuments and thus there is an emphasis on life after death and the preservation of knowledge of the past.

Egyptian folk art often has eyes in it as a symbol of the gods watching upon the pharaohs. In a more narrow sense, Ancient Egyptian art refers to the canonical 2Nd and 3rd Dynasty art developed in Egypt from 3000 BC and used until the 3rd century. Most elements of Egyptian art remained remarkably stable over that 3,000 year period with relatively little outside influence. The quality of observation and execution started at a high level and remained near that level throughout the period.
To the first event is to say that today Menes (or also know as Narmer) is known as the first real pharaoh that ruled Egypt. Under him the country became united fo the first time and a great and advanced civilization should developed from it. At that time the first writing system also should be created. This is extremely important because without writing the ancient Egypt would have never been able to go so far, as it actually did.
In the old kingdom some great master pieces of art were created. The Pyramids and the Sphinx are probably the most famous artifacts from this period. The biggest pyramid was built under Pharaoh Khufu (better known under his Greek name Cheops) around 2560 B.C. and it is today one of the seven wonders of the ancient world (the oldest one!). It took 14-20 (some sources say that it took much longer, about 30-40 years) years to create this monument and it is about 480.6 ft high (about 146.5 meters). For over 3800 years it was the largest structure ever build by men and archeologist are still not sure today how the Egyptian people were able to build it.
For more than 2,000 years --- 3150 B.C. to 30 B.C. Egypt flourished as one of the most prosperous and cultured lands. The art and architecture created through all of ancient Egypt's periods and dynasties teach historians and anthropologists about the beliefs of the Egyptians, from murals to sculptures to symbolic decorations. Often, the sculptures and murals from the period were to be used as guides in the afterlife. Interior design decorations inspired by the ancient Egyptian culture make provocative and educational pieces in any home.
Ancient Egyptian fashion refers to clothing worn in ancient Egypt from the end of the Neolithic period to the collapse of the Ptolemaic dynasty with the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. Egyptian clothing was filled with a variety of colors. Adorned with precious gems and jewels, the fashions of the Ancient Egyptians were made for not only beauty but also comfort. Egyptian fashion was created to keep cool while in the hot desert.
Egyptian linen has been renowned since antiquity for its quality, but few well-preserved garments survive from before about 300AD. This is due partly to the technique of mummification: bodies were wrapped in bandages, often made by tearing up old clothes. Textiles from the Dynastic period are usually made of plain linen; brightly coloured clothes were the preserve of the very wealthy.
The characteristics of ancient Egyptians are indicated by a set of artifacts and customs that lasted for thousands of years. The Egyptians invented and used many basic machines, such as the ramp and the lever, to aid construction processes. They used rope trusses to stiffen the beam of ships. Egyptian paper, made from papyrus, and pottery were mass produced and exported throughout the Mediterranean basin. The wheel, however, did not arrive until foreign influence introduced the chariot in the 16th century BC. The Egyptians also played an important role in developing Mediterranean maritime technology including ships and lighthouses.
Ancient Egyptian Letter faces (Hieroglyphs)
Egyptian hieroglyphs were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logo graphic and alphabetic elements. Egyptians used cursive hieroglyphs for religious literature on papyrus and wood. Less formal variations of the script, called hieratic and demotic, are technically not hieroglyphs.

Various scholars believe that Egyptian hieroglyphs "came into existence a little after Sumerian script, and probably were invented under the influence of the latter although it is pointed out and held that the evidence for such direct influence remains flimsy and that a very credible argument can also be made for the development of writing in Egyptian.
Two major events that happened during the Ancient Greek
ERA
Fashion and textile during the Ancient Greek era
Interior design in ancient Greece
Ancient Greek fashion
Ancient Greek textile
Artist during the ancient Greek ERA
Examples of ancient Greek art
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Ancient Greek
ERA
What is ancient Greek art
Ancient Greek technology
Ancient Greek Pottery
The arts of ancient Greece have exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries all over the world, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. In the West, the art of the Roman Empire was largely derived from Greek models. In the East, Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in Greco-Buddhist art, with ramifications as far as Japan. Following the Renaissance in Europe, the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists. Well into the 19th century, the classical tradition derived from Greece dominated the art of the western world.
Ancient Greek technology developed at an unprecedented speed during the 5th century BC, continuing up to and including the Roman period, and beyond. Inventions that are credited to the ancient Greeks include the gear, screw, rotary mills, screw press, bronze casting techniques, water clock, water organ, torsion catapult, the use of steam to operate some experimental machines and toys, and a chart to find prime numbers. Many of these inventions occurred late in the Greek period, often inspired by the need to improve weapons and tactics in war.

However, peaceful uses are shown by their early development of the watermill, a device which pointed to further exploitation on a large scale under the Romans. They developed surveying and mathematics to an advanced state, and many of their technical advances were published by philosophers like Archimedes and Hero.
The Greek employed strict rules regarding the way their buildings were to be constructed, and allowed only minor variations of the orders to be used in any construction. The main philosophy behind Greek architecture dealt with reflecting the honesty or trueness of forms, as are displayed in life and the natural world. This is evidenced clearly by the Greeks refusal to deviate from traditional forms in construction even when using new construction methods with different materials.

The triglyph and metope which were carved into marble or stone construction were intended to imitate the rafter ends and spacings of wooden beams of earlier wooden construction techniques. Rather than developing a different style they chose to repeat the visual representation of traditional buildings in their “true” form. The ancient Greeks placed great importance on building temples to their gods, and endeavoured to bring a sense of humanity and art to their architectural forms.
Clothing in ancient Greece primarily consisted of the chiton, peplos, himation, and chlamys. While no clothes have survived from this period, descriptions exist from contemporary accounts and artistic depiction. Clothes were mainly homemade, and often served many purposes (such as bedding). Despite popular imagination and media depictions of all-white clothing, elaborate design and bright colours were favored.
The fabric of Greece was woven by the hands of her women. Every square inch of cloth used over a millennium was the product of the daily and life long work of women's hands. As a little girl she was given her first spindle and often she was buried with one by her side. All Greek women were expected to be able to spin and weave. From the lowest woman of the market place to the highest of the aristocrats, each woman spun and wove. The looms of Greece could never be still if the need for cloth was to be met and the hands of her women could never be idle.
1180 BC: the Trojan War. A ten year war between Greece and Troy after the Trojan prince, Paris, abducted Helen, the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta. It is a bit of a Greek legend but probably based on some truth (recent archaeological evidence has recently confirmed the site of Troy for example). The story of the war is told by Homer in the Iliad. It ends when the Greeks trick their way in using the wooden horse.
776 BC: first recorded Olympic Games. The games were an athletic festival held at Olympia and date back to 1300s BC. Olympus is Greece's highest mountain in and was considered the throne of Zeus and home of the gods. The original contest was the stadion, a sprint of 200m. The games were held every four years in either August or September and by the fifth century lasted for five days. The Olympics were banned in AD 393 until the Modern Olympics were begun in 1896.
Because of its relative durability, pottery comprises a large part of the archaeological record of Ancient Greece, and since there is so much of it (some 100,000 vases are recorded in the Corpus vasorum antiquorum), it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society.

Little survives, for example, of ancient Greek painting except for what is found on the earthenware in everyday use, so we must trace the development of Greek art through its vestiges on a derivative art form. Nevertheless the shards of pots discarded or buried in the first millennium BC are still the best guide we have to the customary life and mind of the ancient Greeks.
The major events that happened during the Hellenistic
ERA
Fashion and textile during the Hellenistic era
Interior design in Hellenistic Age
Hellenistic fashion
Artist during the Hellenistic ERA
Examples of Hellenistic art
NEXT STAGE
The Hellenistic
ERA
What is Hellenistic art
Hellenistic technology
Hellenistic Religious Beliefs
Hellenistic art is the art of the Hellenistic period and dating from 323 BC to 146 BC. A number of the best-known works of Greek sculpture belong to this period, including Laocoön and his Sons, Venus de Milo, and the Winged Victory of Samothrace.
The term Hellenistic is a modern invention; the Hellenistic World not only included a huge area covering the whole of the Aegean, rather than the Classical Greece focused on the Poleis of Athens and Sparta, but also a huge time range. In artistic terms this means that there is huge variety which is often put under the heading of "Hellenistic Art" for convenience.
Hellenistic engineers invented many technologies and improved upon pre-existing technologies, particularly during the Hellenistic period. Heron of Alexandria invented a basic steam engine and demonstrated knowledge of mechanic and pneumatic systems. Archimedes invented several machines. The Greeks were unique in pre-industrial times in their ability to combine scientific research with the development of new technologies.

One example is the Archimedean screw; this technology was first conceptualized in mathematics, then built. Other technologies invented by Greek scientists include the ballistae, the piston pump, and primitive analog computers like the Antikythera mechanism. Greek architects were responsible for the first true domes, and were the first to explore the Golden ratio and its relationship with geometry and architecture.
During the Hellenistic period, in the smaller symposium rooms of the palaces -as for example those of Aegae and Pergamum- the beds were placed along the walls, according to the Classical tradition. In spite of this, different traditions and models were followed in the symposia of the Seleucids and the Ptolemies.

Both the size of the rooms and the arrangement of the interior differed. In general, however, large rooms with beds along the walls did not favor the development of conversations.
The Hellenistic period or Hellenistic civilization is the period of ancient Greek history between the death of Macedonian king Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of ancient Rome. During this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its zenith in Europe and Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theater, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy and science. It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration, compared to the brilliance of the Greek Classical era.
Hellenistic fashion primarily consisted of the chiton, peplos, himation,chlamys and it was very similar to greek fashion. While no clothes have survived from this period, descriptions exist from contemporary accounts and artistic depiction. Clothes were mainly homemade, and often served many purposes (such as bedding). Despite popular imagination and media depictions of all-white clothing, elaborate design and bright colours were favored.
Hellenistic textiles
Hellenistic fabrics where woven by women, every square inch of cloth used over a millennium was the product of the daily and life long work of women's hands. As a little girl she was given her first spindle and often she was buried with one by her side. All Hellenistic women were expected to be able to spin and weave. From the lowest woman of the market place to the highest of the aristocrats, each woman spun and wove. The looms of Greece could never be still if the need for cloth was to be met and the hands of her women could never be idle, this was very similar to the ancient greek textiles due to to how close these times were.
In the Hellenistic period, there was much continuity in Greek religion: the Greek gods continued to be worshiped, and the same rites were practiced as before. Change came from the addition of new religions from other countries, such as including the Egyptian god(esse)s of Isis and Serapis, and the Syrian gods of Atargatis and of Hadad, which provided a new outlet for people seeking fulfillment in both the present life and the afterlife.

The worship of Hellenistic rulers was also a feature of this period, most notably in Egypt, where the Ptolemies adopted earlier pharaonic practice, and established themselves as god-kings. Elsewhere rulers might receive divine status without the full status of a god.
6: Roman
7: Indian
8: Chinese
9: Japanese
10: Byzantine
11: Islamic
12: High Renascence
The major events that happened during the Roman
ERA
Fashion and textile during the Roman ERA
Interior design in Roman Age
Roman fashion
Artist during the Roman ERA
Examples of Roman art
NEXT STAGE
The Roman
ERA
What is Roman art
Roman technology
Romans Religious Beliefs
Roman textiles
Roman art is basically visual arts made in Ancient Rome and in the territories of the Roman Empire. Roman art includes architecture, painting, sculpture and mosaic work. Luxury objects in metal-work, gem engraving, ivory carvings, and glass, are sometimes considered in modern terms to be minor forms of Roman art, although this would not necessarily have been the case for contemporaries. Sculpture was perhaps considered as the highest form of art by Romans, but figure painting was also very highly regarded.

Ancient Roman pottery was not a luxury product, but a vast production of "fine wares" in terra sigillata were decorated with reliefs that reflected the latest taste, and provided a large group in society with stylish objects at what was evidently an affordable price. Roman coins were an important means of propaganda, and have survived in enormous numbers. Other perishable forms of art have not survived at all.
The God of War, Mars had two baby sons called Romulus and Remus. Their wicked uncle Amulius was jealous of them and wanted to kill them. He put the babies in a basket in the river Tiber hoping they would drown. The basket floated down the river and stopped at a place near seven hills. A she-wolf whose cubs had been killed came past and found Romulus and Remus. She used her milk to feed them.
The Emperor Hadrian visited Britannia in AD 122. He ordered a wall to be built from Wallsend in the east to Bowness in the west to separate the Roman province from the rest of Britain. It was 118km long, 5 m high and 2-3m thick. Forts were built for the troops who patrolled the wall.

The wall was built by legionary soldiers who marked the part that they built by carving in the stone. The front of the wall was protected by a wide deep ditch. A road went behind the road so that soldiers could move quickly.
Roman technology is the engineering practice which supported Roman civilization and made the expansion of Roman commerce and Roman military possible over nearly a thousand years, if the Byzantine Empire is included.

The Roman Empire had one of the most advanced set of technologies of its time, some of which was lost during the turbulent eras of Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages. Gradually, some of the technological feats of the Romans were rediscovered and/or improved upon, while others went ahead of what the Romans had done during the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Era
Roman fashions underwent very gradual change from the late Republic to the end of the Western empire, 600 years later. In the later empire after Diocletian's reforms, clothing worn by soldiers and non-military government bureaucrats became highly decorated, with woven or embellished strips, clavi, and circular roundels, orbiculi, added to tunics and cloaks. These decorative elements usually comprised geometrical patterns and stylised plant motifs, but could include human or animal figures. The use of silk also increased steadily and most courtiers in late antiquity wore elaborate silk robes. Heavy military-style belts were worn by bureaucrats as well as soldiers, revealing the general militarization of late Roman government.
Ancient textiles, found in good condition, and other fabrics that have survived hundreds, sometimes thousands, of years, often provide the most helpful information about the ancient Roman textile industry. When archaeology experts examine extant textile remains their findings assist in understanding the methods and materials of Roman textile dyeing and manufacture, and also provide much indirect evidence about many other aspects of ancient Roman culture.
Much more is known about Roman interior decoration, and Roman furniture was based on earlier Greek models. From the beginning of the Christian era the predominant Western style was that derived from ancient Greece by way of Rome. Classical styles were based on mathematically expressed laws of proportion that were applied not only to buildings as a whole but also to much of the interior decoration.

Roman interior decoration is known both from literary sources, such as Pliny’s Natural History and the Histories of Suetonius, and from excavations, such as those that uncovered the remains of the Golden House
Religion in ancient Rome encompasses the practices and beliefs the ancient Romans regarded as their own, as well as the many cults imported to Rome or practiced by peoples under Roman rule.

The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, and attributed their success as a world power to their collective piety (pietas) in maintaining good relations with the gods. According to legendary history, most of Rome's religious institutions could be traced to its founders, particularly Numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome, who negotiated directly with the gods. This archaic religion was the foundation of the mos maiorum, "the way of the ancestors" or simply "tradition", viewed as central to Roman identity.
The major event that happened during the Ancient India
ERA
Fashion and textile during the Ancient Indian ERA
Interior design in ancient India
Ancient Indian fashion
Artist during the Ancient Indian ERA
Examples of Indian art
NEXT STAGE
The Indian
ERA
What is Indian art
Indian technology
Ancient India Religious Beliefs
Ancient Indian textiles
Indian Art is the visual art produced on the Indian subcontinent from about the 3rd millennium BCE to modern times. Voluptuous feeling is given unusually free expression in Indian culture. A strong sense of design is also characteristic of Indian art and can be observed in its modern as well as in its traditional forms.
Indian art can be classified into specific periods each reflecting particular religious, political and cultural developments.
The Indus Valley Civilization, situated in a resource-rich area, is notable for its early application of city planning and sanitation technologies. Cites in the Indus Valley offer some of the first examples of closed gutters, public baths, and communal granaries. The Takshashila University was an important seat of learning in the ancient world. It was the center of education for scholars from all over Asia. Many Greek, Persian and Chinese students studied here under great scholars including Kautilya, Panini, Jivaka, and Vishnu Sharma
Recent interior architecture practices in India are initiating many debates exploring issues that concern the dynamism of present, new ways of thinking for the future, and learning from the past. Exemplifying this is Devi Ratn, a Boutique Hotel designed by Ar. Aniket Bhagwat and Interior Designer Pronit Nath.

Located on the suburbs of Jaipur, capital city of Rajasthan, it takes inspiration from the stone Jharokhas of traditional Rajasthaniresidences and reinterprets it with a new language of ornamentation and material palette. Not only are the traditional forms and techniques abstracted, but also the scale is transformed giving a new imagery to the crafts, especially stone crafts and mirror work here.
During the Maurya dynasty founded in 321 BCE most of the Indian subcontinent was united under a single government for the first time. Ashoka the Great who in the beginning sought to expand his kingdom, then followed a policy of ahimsa (non-violence) after converting to Buddhism. The Edicts of Ashoka are the oldest preserved historical documents of India, and under Ashoka Buddhist ideals spread across the whole of East Asia and South-East Asia. Gupta an important ruler during the Gupta period was also known as wise and noble person.
Ancient Indian fashion garments generally used no stitching although Indians knew about sewing. Most clothes were ready to wear as soon as they left the loom. The traditional Indian Dhoti, the Scarf or Uttariya, and the popular Turban are still visible India and continue to be part of Indian fashion. Likewise, for women, the Dhoti or the Sari as the lower garments, combined with a Stanapatta forms the basic ensemble, and once again consists of garments that do not have to be stitched, the stanapatta being simply fastened in a knot at the back.
Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In the 1st cent. Arab traders brought fine Muslin and Calico to Italy and Spain. The Moors introduced the cultivation of cotton into Spain in the 9th cent. Fustians and dimities were woven there and in the 14th cent. in Venice and Milan, at first with a linen warp. Little cotton cloth was imported to England before the 15th cent., although small amounts were obtained chiefly for candlewicks.
India has long been known as a very spiritual, religious heavy area of the world. In India, religion is a way of life. It is an integral part of the entire Indian tradition. For the majority of Indians, religion permeates every aspect of life, from common-place daily chores to education and politics.India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with one of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Religion plays a central and definitive role in the life of the country and most of its people.


The faith of more than 80% of the people is Hinduism, considered the world's oldest religious and philosophical system. Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians.Sikhism, Ayyavazhi, Buddhism and Jainism are Indian-born religious systems that are strong and influential not only in India but across the world. Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Judaism and the Bah‡'’ Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller.
The major events that happened during the Chinese
ERA
Fashion and textile during the Ancient chinese ERA
Interior design in Ancient china
Chinese fashion
Artist during the Ancient Chinese ERA
Examples of Chinese art
NEXT STAGE
The Chinese
ERA
What is Chinese art
Ancient Chinese technology
Ancient chinese Religious Beliefs
Chinese textiles
Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists. The Chinese art in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and that of overseas Chinese can also be considered part of Chinese art where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage and Chinese culture. Early "stone age art" dates back to 10,000 BC, mostly consisting of simple pottery and sculptures. After this early period Chinese art, like Chinese history, is typically classified by the succession of ruling dynasties of Chinese emperors, most of which lasted several hundred years.
In 618, Tang Dynasty was founded. The second Emperor of Tang Dynasty, Li Shimin was one of the most respectable and influential emperors in China history, and he was best at accepting the official’s suggestions and criticism. During the reign of Emperor Li Longji, it was the golden time of China’s ancient history. At that time, the national capital, Chang’an had millions of people. The businessmen, ambassadors and foreign students were innumerable. After Tang Dynasty, many a country people called Chinese people as Tangren and called their living places as Chinatowns.
In 960, North Song Dynasty appeared in China’s history, some typical reforms were taken by the famous minister and literator Wang Anshi. Bao Zheng was an incorrupt and honest official and respected deeply and widely in public. Four Grand Invention- powder, papermaking, printing, and compass were shown and used in the world. During this time, the soft-money appeared firstly in China all round the world.
Ancient Chinese philosophers made significant advances in science, technology, mathematics, and astronomy. Traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture and herbal medicine were also practiced.

Among the earliest inventions were the abacus, the "shadow clock," and the first items such as Kongming lanterns. The Four Great Inventions: the compass, gunpowder, paper making, and printing, were among the most important technological advances, only known in Europe by the end of the Middle Ages. The Tang Dynasty (AD 618 - 906) in particular, was a time of great innovation. A good deal of exchange occurred between Western and Chinese discoveries up to the Qing Dynasty.
A room can be transformed and energized in a positive way with the use of feng shui, so when we enter the room we are affected both visually and emotionally. The Chinese have been practicing the ancient art of feng shui interior design for centuries.


You should always try to interior design the rooms of your house with a focus on the individual mood you are trying to create in each one. It will help you with this task by using color, furniture placement, and perhaps a different carpet and drapes to achieve the desired effect.
Traditional Chinese clothing is broadly referred to as hanfu with many variations such as traditional Chinese academic dress. Depending on one's status in society, each social class had a different sense of fashion. Most Chinese men wore Chinese black cotton shoes, but wealthy higher class people would wear tough black leather shoes for formal occasions. Very rich and wealthy men would wear very bright, beautiful silk shoes sometimes having leather on the inside. Women would wear bright, silk coated Lotus shoes, with wealthy women practicing bound feet as a status symbol - a practice abolished in the early 20th century. Male shoes were mostly less elaborate than women's.
The earliest evidence of silk production in China was found at the sites of Yangshao culture in Xia, Shanxi, where a cocoon of bombyx mori, the domesticated silkworm, cut in half by a sharp knife is dated to between 5000 and 3000 BC. Fragments of primitive looms are also seen from the sites of Hemudu culture in Yuyao, Zhejiang, dated to about 4000 BC. Scraps of silk were found in a Liangzhu culture site at Qianshanyang in Huzhou, Zhejiang, dating back to 2700 BC. Other fragments have been recovered from royal tombs in the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 – c. 1046 BC).
In the Shang Dynasty (about 2000 BC), the earliest period we know much about, people in China worshipped a lot of different gods - weather gods and sky gods - and also a higher god who ruled over the other gods, called Shang-Ti. People who lived during the Shang Dynasty also believed that their ancestors - their parents and grandparents - became like gods when they died, and that their ancestors wanted to be worshipped too, like gods. Each family worshipped their own ancestors.


Around 1500 BC, people began to use written oracle bones to try to find out what was going to happen in the future. By the time of the Chou Dynasty (about 1100 BC), the Chinese were also worshipping a natural force called t'ien, which we usually translate as Heaven.
The major events that happened during the Japanese
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Fashion and textile during the Ancient Japanese ERA
Interior design in Ancient Japan
Japanese fashion
Artist during the Ancient Japanese ERA
Examples of Japanese art
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The Japanese
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What is Japanese art
Ancient Japanese technology
Ancient Japans Religious Beliefs
Japanese textiles
Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting and calligraphy on silk and paper, ukiyo-e woodblock prints, and more recently manga - modern Japanese cartoons - along with a myriad of other types of works of art. It also has a long history, ranging from the beginnings of human habitation in Japan, sometime in the 10th millennium BC, to the present.
he first settlers of Japan, the Jōmon people (c 11000?–c 300 BC), named for the cord markings that decorated the surfaces of their clay vessels, were nomadic hunter-gatherers who later practiced organized farming and built cities with population of hundreds if not thousands. They built simple houses of wood and thatch set into shallow earthen pits to provide warmth from the soil. They crafted lavishly decorated pottery storage vessels, clay figurines called dogū, and crystal jewels.
Ancient Japanese technology shows that people do not had the automobiles for the travelling there were a Tonga that contain 2 seats and only 2 peoples can travel by sitting in this Tonga. In the horses were not used in the past for travelling.


A man himself caught the both the rods end in his hands and carry the weight of the passengers (sitting in the Tonga) and reached them at their destination and received their labor. There is another kind of Ancient Japanese technology Bonbon is an interesting spherical speakers that were used to amplify the sound track.
Japanese interior design is very efficient in the use of resources. Traditional and modern Japanese interiors have been flexible in use and designed mostly with natural materials. The spaces are used as multifunctional rooms. The rooms can be opened to create more space for a particular occasion or for more privacy, or vice versa closed-off by pulling closed paper screens called shōji.[83]

A large portion of Japanese interior walls are often made of shōji screens that can be pushed open to join two rooms together, and then close them allowing more privacy. The shōji screens are made of paper attached to thin wooden frames that roll away on a track when they are pushed. Another important feature of the shōji screen, besides privacy and seclusion, is that they allow light through. This is an important aspect to Japanese design. Paper translucent walls allow light to be diffused through the space and create light shadows and patterns.
The earliest evidence of weaving in Japan is associated with the Jōmon period. This culture is defined by pottery decorated with cord patterns. In a shell mound in the Miyagi Prefecture, dating back about 5,500, some cloth fragments were discovered made from bark fibers. Hemp fibers were also discovered in the Torihama shell midden, Fukui Prefecture, dating back to the Jōmon period, suggesting that these plants could also have been used for clothing. Some pottery pattern imprints depict also fine mat designs, proving their weaving techniques. Since bone needles were also found, it is assumed that they wore dresses that were sewn together.
Silk may be the best known Japanese textile because of its contribution and value for fashioning luxurious kimonos, but in pre-industrial Japan only the nobility and upper classes were permitted to wear silk clothing. In contrast to courtly silk garments, commoners dressed in humble clothing made from homespun coarse hemp and cotton fabrics. These same unrefined, handmade textiles were also employed to create utilitarian articles for the home.
The history of Japan encompasses the history of the islands of Japan and the Japanese people, spanning the ancient history of the region to the modern history of Japan as a nation state. Following the last ice age, around 12,000 BC, the rich ecosystem of the Japanese Archipelago fostered human development. The earliest-known pottery belongs to the Jomon period. The first known written reference to Japan is in the brief information given in Twenty-Four Histories in the 1st century AD. The main cultural and religious influences came from China.



The first permanent capital was founded at Nara in 710 AD, which became a center of Buddhist art, religion and culture. The current imperial family emerged about 700 AD, but until 1868 (with few exceptions) had high prestige but little power. By 1550 or so political power was subdivided into several hundred local units, or "domains" controlled by local "daimyo" (lords), each with his own force of samurai warriors. Tokugawa Ieyasu came to power in 1600, gave land to his supporters, set up his "bakufu" (military government) at Edo (modern Tokyo). The "Tokugawa period" was prosperous and peaceful, but Japan deliberately terminated the Christian missions and cut off almost all contact with the outside world.
Most Japanese do not exclusively identify themselves as adherents of a single religion; rather, they incorporate elements of various religions in a syncretic fashion known as Shinbutsu shūgō (神仏習合 amalgamation of kami and buddhas?). Shinbutsu Shūgō officially ended with the Shinto and Buddhism Separation Order of 1886, but continues in practice. Shinto and Japanese Buddhism are therefore best understood not as two completely separate and competing faiths, but rather as a single, rather complex religious system
The major events that happened during the Hellenistic
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Fashion and textile during the Hellenistic era
Interior design in Hellenistic Age
Hellenistic fashion
Artist during the Hellenistic ERA
Examples of Hellenistic art
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The Hellenistic
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What is Hellenistic art
Hellenistic technology
Hellenistic Religious Beliefs
Hellenistic textiles
The major events that happened during the Byzantine
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Fashion and textile during the Byzantine ERA
Interior design in Byzantine Age
Byzantine fashion
Artist during the Byzantine ERA
Examples of Byzantine art
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The Byzantine
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What is Byzantine art
Byzantine technology
Byzantine Religious Beliefs
Byzantine textiles
Byzantine art is the artistic products of the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire. Though the empire itself emerged from Rome's decline and lasted until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, many Eastern Orthodox states in Eastern Europe, as well as to some degree the Muslim states of the eastern Mediterranean, preserved many aspects of the empire's culture and art for centuries afterward.
A number of states contemporary with the Byzantine Empire were culturally influenced by it, without actually being part of it (the "Byzantine commonwealth"), such as Bulgaria, Serbia, and the Rus, as well as some non-Orthodox states the Republic of Venice and Kingdom of Sicily, which had close ties to the Byzantine Empire despite being in other respects part of western European culture. Art produced by Eastern Orthodox Christians living in the Ottoman Empire is often called "post-Byzantine." Certain artistic traditions that originated in the Byzantine Empire, particularly in regard to icon painting and church architecture, are maintained in Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Russia and other Eastern Orthodox countries to the present day.
Byzantine science played an important role in the transmission of classical knowledge to the Islamic world and to Renaissance Italy, and also in the transmission of Arabic science to Renaissance Italy. Its rich historiographical tradition preserved ancient knowledge upon which splendid art, architecture, literature and technological achievements were built.
Byzantine science was essentially classical science. Therefore, Byzantine science was in every period closely connected with ancient-pagan philosophy, and metaphysics. Despite some opposition to pagan learning, many of the most distinguished classical scholars held high office in the Church. The most noteworthy oppositions include the closing of the Platonic Academy in 529, the obscurantism of Cosmas Indicopleustes, the condemnation of Ioannis Italos (1082) and of Georgios Plethon because of their devotion to ancient philosophy.
Byzantine architecture is the building style characteristic of the Turkish city known today as Istanbul, formerly Byzantium and later Constantinople, after 330 AD. Initially an eclectic style heavily influenced by features of Roman temples, distinctive characteristics like the domed roof, open interior spaces, and embellished decoration eventually emerged. This architectural style was primarily influential between the mid-4th century and 1453 but remained en vogue in some regions such as Russia beyond the Byzantine age.



This architectural style has several distinctive characteristics. Arguably the most unique feature is the domed roof that often rests on a massive square base like the Hagia Sophia, a former basilica and mosque in Istanbul. Semi-domes are also often used to cover the hemicycles, and small windows filter light through a thin layer of alabaster that ensures soft interior illumination.
The Byzantine Period of Greek History is one of the least understood and the most important. The Byzantine Empire laid the foundations for Orthodox Christianity in Greece, the Balkans and Russia. The Fall of Constantinople meant the end of Christianity in the Middle East, the rise of Ottoman-Muslim power and the East-West friction that exists today. Byzantine Scholars brought with them from Constantinople the knowledge and art that would play a pivotal role in bringing about the Renaissance in Western Europe.
In 51 AD Christianity had been introduced when Saint Paul preached in Athens on Mars Hill as well as in Thessaloniki and Corinth. On the island of Patmos The Book of Revelation, otherwise known as The Apocalypse was written by St. John the Theologian between 95 and 97 A.D. He had been exiled to the island by the Roman emperor Titus Flavius Domitianus for 18 months.
Byzantine dress changed considerably over the thousand years of the Empire, but was essentially conservative. The Byzantines liked colour and pattern, and made and exported very richly patterned cloth, especially Byzantine silk, woven and embroidered for the upper classes, and resist-dyed and printed for the lower. A different border or trimming round the edges was very common, and many single stripes down the body or around the upper arm are seen, often denoting class or rank. Taste for the middle and upper classes followed the latest fashions at the Imperial Court. As in the West during the Middle Ages, clothing was very expensive for the poor, who probably wore the same well-worn clothes nearly all the time, this meant in particular that any costume owned by most women needed to fit throughout the full term of a pregnancy.
Byzantine silk is silk woven in the Byzantine Empire (Byzantium) from about the fourth century until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.

The Byzantine capital of Constantinople was the first significant silk-weaving center in Europe. Silk was one of the most important commodities in the Byzantine economy, used by the state both as a means of payment and of diplomacy. Raw silk was bought from China and made up into fine fabrics that commanded high prices throughout the world. Later, silkworms were smuggled into the Empire and the overland silk trade gradually became less important. After the reign of Justinian I, the manufacture and sale of silk became an imperial monopoly, only processed in imperial factories, and sold to authorized buyers.
The 8th and early 9th centuries were also dominated by controversy and religious division over Iconoclasm, which was the main political issue in the Empire for over a century. Icons (here meaning all forms of religious imagery) were banned by Leo and Constantine from around 730, leading to revolts by iconodules (supporters of icons) throughout the empire. After the efforts of empress Irene, the Second Council of Nicaea met in 787 and affirmed that icons could be venerated but not worshiped. Irene is said to have endeavoured to negotiate a marriage between herself and Charlemagne, but, according to Theophanes the Confessor, the scheme was frustrated by Aetios, one of her favourites.

In the early 9th century, Leo V reintroduced the policy of iconoclasm, but in 843 empress Theodora restored the veneration of icons with the help of Patriarch Methodios. Iconoclasm played a part in the further alienation of East from West, which worsened during the so-called Photian schism, when Pope Nicholas I challenged the elevation of Photios to the patriarchate.
The major events that happened during the Islamic
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Fashion and textile during the Ancient Islamic ERA
Interior design in islamic era
Islamic fashion
Artist during the Ancient Islamic ERA
Examples of Islamic art
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The Islamic
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What is Islamic art
Ancient Islamic technology
Ancient Islamic Religious Beliefs
Islamic textiles
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations. It is thus a very difficult art to define because it covers many lands and various peoples over some 1400 years; it is not art specifically of a religion, or of a time, or of a place, or of a single medium like painting. The huge field of Islamic architecture is the subject of a separate article, leaving fields as varied as calligraphy, painting, glass, ceramics, and textiles, among others.
Islamic art is not at all restricted to religious art, but includes all the art of the rich and varied cultures of Islamic societies as well. It frequently includes secular elements and elements that are frowned upon, if not forbidden, by some Islamic theologians. Apart from the ever-present calligraphic inscriptions, specifically religious art is actually less prominent in Islamic art than in Western medieval art, with the exception of Islamic architecture where mosques and their complexes of surrounding buildings are the most common remains. Figurative painting may cover religious scenes, but normally in essentially secular contexts such as the walls of palaces or illuminated books of poetry. The calligraphy and decoration of manuscript Qu'rans is an important aspect, but other religious art such as glass mosque lamps and other mosque fittings such as tiles (e.g. Girih tiles), woodwork and carpets usually have the same style and motifs as contemporary secular art, although with religious inscriptions even more prominent.
Medieval Islam was a prosperous and dynamic civilization, and much of its prosperity was due to an engineering technology that assisted in increasing the production of raw materials and finished products. In addition, the demand for scientific instruments, and the need to cater for the amusements and aesthetic pleasures of the leisured classes, was reflected in a tradition of fine technology based upon delicate and sensitive control mechanisms. This is a very wide subject indeed, and the Islamic contribution to the development of modern engineering will be indicated by means of citing individual cases of technology transfer.
InteriorWhile conventional mosques were limited by a segmented interior, Sinan's effort at Edirne was a structure that made it possible to see the mihrab from any location within the mosque. Surrounded by four tall minarets in, the Mosque of Selim II has a grand dome atop it. Around the rest of the mosque were many additions: libraries, schools, hospices, baths, soup kitchens for the poor, markets, hospitals, and a cemetery. These annexes were aligned axially and grouped, if possible. In front of the mosque sits a rectangular court with an area equal to that of the mosque. The innovation however, comes not in the size of the building, but from the organization of its interior.

The mihrab is pushed back into an apse-like alcove with a space with enough depth to allow for window illumination from three sides. This has the effect of making the tile panels of its lower walls sparkle with natural light. The amalgamation of the main hall forms a fused octagon with the dome-covered square. Formed by eight massive dome supports, the octagon, is pierced by four half dome covered corners of the square. The beauty resulting from the conformity of geometric shapes engulfed in each other was the culmination of Sinan's life long search for a unified interior space.
In or about the year 570 the child who would be named Muhammad and who would become the Prophet of one of the world's great religions, Islam, was born into a family belonging to a clan of Quraysh, the ruling tribe of Mecca, a city in the Hijaz region of northwestern Arabia.
Originally the site of the Ka'bah, a shrine of ancient origins, Mecca had with the decline of southern Arabia (see Chapter l ) become an important center of sixth-century trade with such powers as the Sassanians, Byzantines, and Ethiopians. As a result the city was dominated by powerful merchant families among whom the men of Quraysh were preeminent.
Because the Islamic Empire occupied mostly hot places, people living in the Islamic Empire mostly dressed to protect themselves from the sun. They didn't have any sunscreen then, so the best way to keep from getting sunburns was to keep all your skin covered with cloth as much as possible. At the same time, people also believed that God wanted them to be covered up, especially women, so that men would not see their bodies. People said that women would be safer if their bodies were hidden under layers of cloth.
Islamic textiles were also widely exported to the West, where their prominence is underscored by their impact on European languages. For example, the English words "cotton" and "mohair," and "taffeta" and "seersucker," derive, respectively, from Arabic and Persian. Despite their prevalence, comparatively few textiles have survived from the early Islamic period. Textiles are inherently fragile, and because of their value Islamic fabrics in all periods were cut down and reused over and over again until they literally wore out. Many of the extant early Islamic textiles were found in Egypt, primarily in graves, where the dark and dry conditions helped to preserve them. The fragments that have survived are fabricated from cotton, linen, silk and wool, often dyed vivid colors. They demonstrate a well-developed textile technology notable for its use of complicated and richly colored designs.
Islamis a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of اAllāh I.E God and by the teachings and normative example of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.

Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and the purpose of existence is to love and serve God. Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets.They maintain that the previous messages and revelations have been partially misinterpreted or altered over time, but consider the Arabic Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God. Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking and welfare, to warfare and the environment.
The major event that happened during the Ancient High Renascence
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Fashion and textile during the High Renascence ERA
Interior design in ancient
of the High Renascence
High Renascence fashion
Artist during the High Renascence ERA
Examples of
High Renascence art
The High
Renascence
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What is
High Renascence art
High Renascence technology
High Renascence Religious Beliefs
High Renascence textiles
In art history, High Renaissance, is the period denoting the apogee of the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. The High Renaissance period is traditionally taken to begin in the 1490s, with Leonardo's fresco of the Last Supper in Milan and the death of Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence, and to have ended in 1527 with the sacking of Rome by the troops of Charles V. This term was first used in German (Hochrenaissance) in the early nineteenth century, and has its origins in the "High Style" of painting and sculpture described by Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Over the last twenty years, use of the term has been frequently criticized by academic art historians for oversimplifying artistic developments, ignoring historical context, and focusing only on a few iconic works.
The technological innovation of the Renaissance era began with the invention of the printing press. Although the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Prior to Gutenberg's invention, each piece of metal type for printing presses had to be individually carved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that allowed for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This allowed a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, an entire upper case and lower case alphabet set could be made much more quickly than if they were individually hand carved. Gutenberg is also credited with the first use of an oil-based ink. He printed on both vellum and paper, the latter having been introduced into Europe somewhat earlier from China by way of the Arabs, who had a paper mill in operation in Baghdad as early as 794.
The various exterior aspects of the Palazzo del Te provide a succession of changing moods, which are contrived so as to retain the surprised attention of the spectator rather than to present him with a building that can be comprehended at a glance. In the courtyard the oddly fractured cornice sections create an air of ponderous tension, whereas the loggia is lightly elegant. Similarly, the illusionistic decoration of the interior runs the full gamut from heavy (if self-parodying) tragedy to pretty delicacy. Giulio also created a series of contrived vistas, through arches and doors, much like that later projected by Michelangelo for the Palazzo Farnese in Rome. Such management of scenic effects became one of the hallmarks of later Mannerist architecture.
The age of the Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. Also included a huge artistic movement.
Brunelleschi is famous for two panel paintings illustrating geometric optical linear perspective made in the early 1400s. His biographer, Antonio Manetti, described this famous experiment in which Brunelleschi painted two panels: the first of the Florentine Baptistery as viewed frontally from the western portal of the unfinished cathedral, and second the Palazzo Vecchio as seen obliquely from its northwest corner.
Johann's invention of mechanical movable type printing started the Printing Revolution and is widely regarded as the most important event of the modern period.It played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses.
Full and gathered or puffed sleeves, which gave considerable gracefulness to the upper part of the body, succeeded to the mahoitres, which had been discarded since the time of Louis XI. By the end of the 15th Century, men's Renaissance fashion imposed a short and ornamental mantle, a broad-brimmed hat covered with feathers, and trunk hose, the ample dimensions of which earned for them the name of trousses. Women wore the bodies of their dresses closely fitting to the figure, embroidered, trimmed with lace, and covered with gilt ornaments; the sleeves were very large and open, and for the most part they still adhered to the heavy and ungraceful head-dress of Queen Anne of Brittany.
During the Renaissance, luxurious fabrics made of silk and precious metal threads counted among the most valuable items owned by both individuals and the Church. As an expression of power, wealth, and taste, specially woven fabrics incorporating a family coat-of-arms or other motifs associated with the family's reputation were particularly valuable. Such fabrics were used in secular dress, religious vestments, and interior furnishings. The precise meaning of some of the motifs that held special significance during the Renaissance has been lost over time. But the fact remains that these luxurious textiles were the most highly valued products of the talented silk weavers of the Italian peninsula, and were exported all over Europe, as well as to the Ottoman empire.
At the beginning of the High Renaissance, Pope Julius II (reigning 1503–1513) was in power. Though a religious figure, religion wasn't the only thing he influenced. Julius II's goals were also politically and geographically motivated. He strove to remove the French from Italian territory before they could completely take over the Italian papacy. By 1512 Italy had joined Spain in the Holy League and the countries united to defeat the French, thus scoring a victory for both Christianity and Italy.

During this period, popes were often expelled for bribery or other treacheries, but their power was usually restored. To this extent, religious leadership was consistent but not absolute. Popes also often handed their office over to close friends and family members, and this culture of nepotism contributed to the unrest. Further, popes led privileged lives and had access to luxuries that much of the population would never
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