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De-emphasizing Structure Words
Transcript of De-emphasizing Structure Words
Most words that are not content words are
Structure words are short words like "the" and "to."
These words do not carry as much information as content words.
pronouns, prepositions, articles, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs, and "to be" verbs
are usually de-emphasized
to help make a contrast with the focus word.
De-emphasizing structure words:
Silent letter -h-
Reductions ( schwa)
you+have = you've
he+would = he'd
can+not = can't
I+will = I'll
I am = I'm
do not = don't
they have = they've
that is = that's
I would = I'd
I had = I'd
He has = he's
I will = I'll
I have = I've
We have = we've
will not = won't
do you = d'you
contractions are so common in spoken English
How to link words that begin with
"to be" contractions
Common expressions with contractions
How're you doing"
How's it going?
How've you been?
What'll you have?
It's great to see you!
I don't believe it!
De-emphasizing structure words: Reductions
Some structured words in English are de-emphasized by reducing the vowel in the structure word to schwa.
By reducing the words it makes the important words easier to notice.
Words like "a," "an," and "or" that begin with a vowel sound are often linked to the final sound of the word that comes before them.
He takes a bus to work.
They wrote a letter to the president.
I left an umbrella in your car.
She runs or swims everyday.
When and is reduced, the word before and after are easier to notice. The vowel sounds in reduced to a schwa and the /d/ is silent.
cream and sugar
men and women
rock and roll
cats and dogs
sandwich and coffee
big and little
tables and chairs
knives and forks
bread and butter
hamburgers and fries
salt and pepper
boys and girls
Silent letter -h-
Structure words that begin with the letter -h-, like "he" and "her," are often reduced by making the -h- silent.
The vowel sound after the silent -h- links with the word that comes before it.
"Is he?" usually sounds like "Izzy?"
What's her name?
I can't reach her.
Matt lost his jacket.
Will he be there?
Has anyone seen him?
I can't reacher.
Matt lostiz jacket.
Wille be there?
Has anyone seenim?
When a structure word beginning in
is the first word in a sentence, the
is not silent. " He's going later."
Clear Speech 4th Edition
Judy B. Gilbert