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Wine and Specialty Beverage

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Mike Cooper

on 26 April 2017

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Transcript of Wine and Specialty Beverage

CUL 210
Wine and Specialty Beverage

Old World vs New World
Tasting Wine
Lager vs. Ale
Top-Fermenting Yeast
Bottom-Fermenting Yeast
Colder, slower fermentation and conditioning
Warmer, faster fermentation and conditioning
Styles of Beer
Pairing Principles
1) Personal Preference
2) Flavors
Wine/Beer can be like a "sauce" that adds flavor to a dish
Like flavors go together
Contrasting flavors can compliment each other
Sweet goes with: sweet, salty or spicy
Acid goes with: sweet, salty, fatty
Tannins/Hops go with protein
3) Intensity:
A wine or beer that is very intense will overpower a light dish
A dish with strong flavors will make a lighter wine or beer seem tasteless
4) Texture and weight:
The mouthfeel of a wine or beer (including bitterness from hops or tannins) should be similar to the food it is paired with
History of Wine
9000 BCE
4500 BCE
300 BCE Roman Empire
Wine Growing Regions
Vitis Vinifera
Subspecies = Varietals
Growth Cycle
History of Wine
Grape Varietals
Terroir: influence of climate, topography, soil and weather
Phylloxera Vastatrix
Phyloxera-resistant vines
The Discovery of Alcohol
Phenolic Ripeness
Still Table Wine

Sparkling Wine

Fortified Wine

Aromatized Wine


Residual Sugar - Riesling
No apparent sweetness - most wine
Intermediate sweetness (White Zin)
White Wine

Red Wine

Rose Wine
Grapes pressed before fermentation
Grapes pressed after fermentation
Somewhere in between - or a mix

Pneumatic bladder

more pressure = more tannins & aromatic compounds
Low sugar? Needs:
Chaptalization or Enrichment
Too much acid? Needs:
Potassium Bicarbonate
Too little acid (flabby)? Needs:
Tartaric Acid
Malic Acid
Citric Acid
Sulfur Dioxide SO2
Antiseptic and Antioxidant
Clean tanks and barrels
Stall fermentation and oxidation pre-crush
Kill wild yeast
Arrest fermentation
Adding during bottling to prevent oxidation or bacterial spoilage
European law restricts amounts used
White wine usually has more than red
Yeast Beast eats sugar - makes CO2 and Ethanol
Cultured Yeast
Heat Management
Cool Autumn Weather
Glycol-Jacketed Tanks

White Wine Fermentation Temperature
50-60 degrees
Keep volatile aromatic compounds in solution
Red Wine Fermentation Temperature
75-90 degrees
Increase extraction of color and flavor from skins
Checking Fermentation
Stuck Fermentation:
"Vigneron's annual bath", add O2, mix with actively fermenting vat
Making Sweet Wine
Start with high sugar
Arrest fermentation through cooling or CO2 pressure
Kill yeast - SO2 or pasteurization
Remove yeast - filter, centrifuge
Add sugar or sussreserve to finished wine

Cut along the grain for smaller pores, controlled diffusion, aged,
baking spices

More porous, stronger flavors, vanilla

Toast vs. Char

Oak staves, chips and dust
Malolactic Fermentation
Cold Stabilization
Carbonic Maceration
One + One
Color and Intensity: Age
Texture: Bubbles, Sediment, Legs
Rim to Core: Meniscus

Wine Faults - Health
Cork taint
Volatile Acidity

Aroma Wheel

Sweetness - Finish
Acidity - Saliva
Tannin - Astringent
Body - Mouthfeel

Flavor profile - Aroma Wheel

Tasting Sequence
White before Red
Light-bodied wines before full-bodied wines
Sparkling before Still
Dry before Sweet
Young before Old
Why do we age wine?
Elévage - to raise

Reductive aging vs. Oxidative aging

Tannins and color soften through chemical reactions and precipitation
Environmental Factors

55 degrees



Short term and Long term storage
Wine Service
Wine Service Temperatures:
Champagne/Sparkling 40-50°F
Dry White & Rosé 42-54°F
Light-Bodied Red 50-54°F
Full-Bodied Red 54-66°F
Sweet Wine 40-60°F
Dry Fortified Wine 45-52°F
Sweet Fortified Wine 72°F

Serving Wine
Why pair food with wine?
Refreshment - acidity
Taste and enjoyment - flavor
Matching - harmony
Sublimity - the match exceeds the sum of the parts
Pairing Principles
1. Eat and drink what you like
2. Balance the weight (light-, medium-, or full-bodied)
3. Match intensities - flavor and aroma
4. Stay close to home
5. Taste (page 88 chart, paragraph 3 on page 89)
6. Texture (acid, butter, tannins or alcohol in wine - spice in food)
7. Compare or contrast

"Sweet" foods - caramelization, fruit, shellfish
Earthy dishes - game, mushrooms, grains, herbs
Acidic foods - lemon, brine, tomatoes
Meaty foods - meat, mushrooms
Rich or fatty foods - fat, oil, cream
Smoke - grilled, charred, smoked
Herbs - fresh or dried
Spices - sweet/savory
Classic pairs
Port and Stilton
Foie Gras and Sauternes
Caviar and Champagne
Difficult Foods
"French Paradox"
Resveratrol, Saponin, Quercetin
Stress Reduction
Moderation - men: 4-8 oz per day - Women: 4 oz per day

Allergies - sulfites, phenols

"Alcoholism" or "Alcohol Use Disorder"
"Alcohol Abuse" vs. "Alcohol Dependence (addiction)"
10% of population are considered "alcoholics"
"The most dangerous drug on the planet"
and "Number one killer of men aged 15-59"
cirrhosis of the liver, high blood pressure, ulcers
40% of violent crime - 75% of domestic abuse
10,000 driving fatalities per year (one every 50 minutes)
Wine and Health
Nuits-St. George
Cotes De Nuit
Cotes De Beaune
Cotes D'Or
Cool region Chardonnay:
Lean, steely, acidic, Granny Smith apple – can age up to several decades

Warm region Chardonnay
Melony flavors, low acidity, Red Delicious apple – drink young

Chaptalization – Burgundy and Champagne
Acidification (and various other techniques and manipulations) – California and Australia

Classic Burgundian techniques
•Barrel fermentation (oak, spice)
•Malolactic fermentation (butter, cream, lower perceived acid)
•Battonage (biscuity, bready flavors, full mouth feel)

France – Burgundy region
Côte d’Or (limestone)
•Côte du Beaune
Chablis (fossilized oyster shells)
Côte des Blancs (Blanc de Blancs Champagne)
Australia – Hunter Valley, Victoria, Margaret River
California – Russian River Valley, Napa, Sonoma, Monterey County and Santa Barbara County
Chateau Montelena 1976 Best in Judgment of Paris

Food Pairing:
Unoaked Chardonnay works well with seafood and lighter dishes
Malolactic treated wines make good comparison matches to cream sauces and cheeses
Highly oaked Chardonnay can be a light red wine replacement
Some slightly sweet NW versions can work with spicy foods or sweetish food
Pinot Noir
Cross between Gewurztraminer and either Pinot Meunier or St. Laurent
Prefers well-draining, shallow, calcium-rich, soils that are low in fertility.
Cool climate grape (like Chardonnay)
Thin skinned, likes sun exposure and cool nights.
Mutations – Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc
30 year life cycle – use cuttings from healthy plants to propagate
To get color: warm extractions or rotary fermenters

Burgundy Region – Côte d’Or – Côtes de Nuits
~Vosne-Romanee “iron fist in a velvet glove”
~Volnay – limestone develops more aromatics – feminine
~Pommard – clay and iron develop more tannin and color – masculine

California – Carneros, Russian River, Santa Barbara

Oregon – Willamette Valley (Eyrie 2nd place in French competition in 1979)
Joseph Drouhin (French winemaker) purchased land in Oregon

New Zealand – South Island (Central Otago and Marlborough)

Pinot Noir
Red berries, cherries, mushrooms, beets, earthy, mushroom, leather, barnyard, violets
The smell of manure – attributed to Brettanomyces
(not seen in modern, cleaner wineries)
Can age up to 20 years

Food Pairing:
“a red wine masquerading as a white wine”
Pairs well with salmon, rabbit, Beef Bourguignon, mustard, duck, mushrooms, pork
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cross between Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Franc
Prefers well-draining, gravelly soils with little organic matter
Warm region grape, small berries with thick-skin and large seeds (tannins)
Susceptible to Powdery Mildew (as are Rosebushes)

Warm fermentation (85-90 degrees)
with long post-fermentation maceration period (up to 3 weeks)

Oak flavors (baking spices and vanilla) compliment the dark fruit (black currant and plum) flavors/aromas
Bordeaux Grand Cru: drink after 10 years and age up to 80 years
California (Napa): best between 5 and 15 years
Australia (Coonawarra): up to 12 years

Cabernet Sauvignon
France: Bordeaux – Left Bank – Medoc (primarily CS in blends)

California: Napa – Rutherford, Oakville, Stag’s Leap
Paris 1976 Stag’s Leap Cabernet 1st Place
Australia: Connawarra, Margaret River
Other: Super Tuscans, Chile, New Zealand North Island

Black currants, plums, black cherry, pencil shavings, cigar box, cedar, mint, bell pepper, leather, heavy tannins

Food Pairing:
Steak, lamb, duck, goose, wild game (roasted), demi glace

French Wine Classification
•AOC (Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée) indicates the geographical origin, quality and (generally) the style of a wine.

The Europe-wide equivalent of AOC is AOP (Appellation d'Origine Protégée). All Grand Cru and Premier Cru wines fall into the AOC category.

Grand Cru is the very highest classification of French wine. The term can refer to a wine in one of two ways, either a) the plot of land where the grapes are grown or b) the chateau at which the wine is made. The former applies most famously in Burgundy, Alsace and Champagne (but is also used in Languedoc and the Loire Valley). The latter is exclusive to Bordeaux.
Romanee-Conti Grand Cru covers just four acres of top-quality vineyard and denotes dry red wines made exclusively from Pinot Noir.
Premier Cru denotes either 1) a vineyard plot (most often in Burgundy) of superior quality, or 2) the very highest tier within a Grand Cru classification (such as the 'Premier Grand Cru Classé' chateaux of Bordeaux).
Bourgogne Blanc (300 parishes) white wines made from Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc or Pinot Gris.

French Wine Classication Cont'd
Vin de Pays
means '
wine of the land
', although it is often translated as 'country wine'. Its Europe-wide equivalent is IGP (Indication Géographique Protégée). This category focuses on geographical origin rather than style and tradition, and gives winemakers greater stylistic freedom than AOC. Vin de Pays was introduced in the 1970s, and by the year 2000 there were more than 150 individual VDP titles, covering about a quarter of French wine production.

Vin de France
replaced the outdated
Vin de Table
category in 2010, but remains the most basic quality tier for French wine. This is the least regulated (and least used) of the three categories; Vin de France wines can be made from grapes grown anywhere in France, but their labels do not mention a specific region of origin. Vintage and grape variety statements are optional.
Burgundy Grand Crus
•Chablis Grand Cru
•Chambertin-Clos de Bèze
•Clos de la Roche
•Clos de Tart
•Clos de Vougeot
•Clos des Lambrays
•Clos Saint Denis

•Grands Échezeaux
•La Grande Rue
•La Romanée
•La Tâche

Burgundy Premier Crus
18% of production
585 Vineyards (will say Premier Cru)

Burgundy Communes
36% of production
53 communal appelations (i.e. Volnay, Pommard))

41% of production
22 appelations (i.e. Bourgogne Blanc,
Haute Côtes de Nuit)
Bordeaux Classification
Created in 1855 by the Bordeux Chamber of Commerce
Premier grands crus classés (First Great Growths)
Château Lafite-Rothschild~Pauillac
Chäteau Latour~Pauillac
Château Margaux~Margaux
Château Mouton-Rothschild~Pauillac
Château Haut-Brion~Pessac
Deuxième grands crus classés (Second Great Growths)
Château Brane-Cantenac~Cantenac-Margaux
Château Cos-d'Estournel~Saint-Estèphe
Château Ducru-Beaucaillou~Saint-Julien
Château Durfort-Viviens~Margaux
Château Gruaud-Larose~Saint-Julien
Château Lascombes~Margaux
Château Léoville-Barton~Saint-Julien
Château Léoville-Las-Cases~Saint-Julien
Château Léoville-Poyferré~Saint-Julien
Château Montrose~Saint-Estèphe
Château Pichon-Lalande~Pauillac
Château Pichon-Longueville Baron~Pauillac
Château Rausan-Ségla~Margaux
Château Rauzan-Gassies~Margaux
Bordeauxs cont'd
Troisième grands crus classés (Third Great Growths)
Château Boyd-Cantenac~Cantenac-Margaux
Château Calon-Ségur~Saint-Estèphe
Château Cantenac-Brown~Cantenac-Margaux
Château Desmirail~Margaux
Château Ferrière~Margaux
Château Giscours~Labarde-Margaux
Château d'Issan~Cantenac-Margaux
Château Kirwan~Cantenac-Margaux
Château Lagrange~Saint-Julien
Château La Lagune~Ludon-Haut Médoc
Château Langoa-Barton~Saint -Julien
Château Malescot-Saint-Exupéry~Margaux
Château Marquis d'Alesme-Becker~Margaux
Château Palmer~Cantenac-Margaux

Quatrième grands crus classés (Fourth Great Growths)
Château Beychevelle~Saint-Julien
Château Branaire-Ducru~Saint-Julien
Château Duhart-Milon-Rothschild~Pauillac
Château La Tour-Carnet~Saint-Laurent-Haut Médoc
Château Lafon-Rochet~Saint-Estèphe
Château Marquis-de-Terme~Margaux
Château Pouget~Cantenac-Margaux
Château Prieuré-Lichine~Cantenac-Margaux
Château Saint-Pierre~Saint-Julien
Château Talbot~Saint-Julien
Bordeauxs Cont'd
Cinquième grands crus classés (Fifth Great Growths)
Château Batailley~Pauillac
Château Belgrave~Saint-Laurent-Haut Médoc
Château Camensac~Saint-Laurent-Haut Médoc
Château Cantermerle~Macau-Haut Médoc
Château Clerc-Milon~Pauillac
Château Cos-Labory~Saint-Estèphe
Château Croizet-Bages~Pauillac
Château Dauzac~Labarde-Margaux
Château Grand-Puy-Ducasse~Pauillac
Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste~Pauillac
Château Haut-Bages-Libéral~Pauillac
Château Haut-Batailley~Pauillac
Château Lynch-Bages~Pauillac
Château Lynch-Moussas~Pauillac
Château Monton d'Armailhac~Pauillac
Château Pédesclaux~Pauillac
Château Pontet-Canet~Pauillac
Château du Tertre~Arsac-Margaux

Bordeaux Sweet Wine
Bordeaux sweet wines
Premier Cru Supérieur
•Château d'Yquem (Sauternes)

Premier Cru
•Château La Tour Blanche, Bommes (Sauternes)
•Château Lafaurie-Peyraguey, Bommes (Sauternes)
•Château Clos Haut-Peyraguey, Bommes (Sauternes)
•Château de Rayne-Vigneau, Bommes (Sauternes)
•Château Suduiraut, Preignac (Sauternes)
•Château Coutet, Barsac
•Château Climens, Barsac
•Château Guiraud, Sauternes
•Château Rieussec, Fargues (Sauternes)
•Château Rabaud-Promis, Bommes (Sauternes)
•Château Sigalas-Rabaud, Bommes (Sauternes)

The Graves Classification created in 1953

•Château Bouscaut (red & white)
•Château Carbonnieux (red & white)
•Château Couhins (white)
•Château Couhins-Lurton (white)
•Domaine de Chevalier (red & white)
•Château de Fieuzal (red)
•Château Haut-Bailly (red)
•Château Haut-Brion (red)
•Château La Mission Haut-Brion (red)
•Château La Tour Haut-Brion (red)
•Château Latour-Martillac (red & white)
•Château Laville Haut-Brion (white)
•Château Malartic-Lagravière (red & white)
•Château Olivier (red & white)
•Château Pape Clément (red)
•Château Smith Haut Lafitte (red)

Saint-Émilion & Pomerol
Created in 1955
The Saint-Émilion Classification currently labels 15 wines as First Growths. These Premiers Grands Crus Classés, subdivided into two further classes : A (2 wines) and B (13 wines). A further 64 wines are currently classified as Grands Crus Classés.
Premiers Grands Crus Classés A
•Château Ausone
•Château Cheval Blanc
Premiers Grands Crus Classés B
•Château Angélus
•Château Beauséjour (Duffau-Lagarrosse)
•Château Beau-Séjour Bécot
•Château Bélair-Monange
•Château Canon
•Château Figeac
•Clos Fourtet
•Château La Gaffelière
•Château Magdelaine
•Château Pavie-Macquin
•Château Pavie
•Château Troplong Mondot
•Château Trottevieille
Pomerol has refused to create any sort of classification scheme but it has produced red wines that are among the most expensive in the world, such as Château Pétrus.

Prefers warm climate and clay-based soil that holds moisture for slow ripening to create full-bodied, more structured wine
In limestone, Merlot is more perfumed and elegant
Susceptible to grey rot (skins burst within a day or two of rain)

Warm weather high yields create easy-drinking approachable wine
Cooler, lower yield vines create more structured wine
Fuller-bodied, ageable wine – cold soak with pump over to extract tannins
Can age a decade or more

Best grape for Libournais - Right Bank in Bordeaux
Most widely planted grape in Right and Left Bank of Bordeaux
Left Bank 25-50% of the blend
Right Bank up to 95% of blend
St. Emilion, Pomerol (Chateau Petrus)

California: Merlot ripens more - creates a fuller-bodied, fruitier and silkier (tannin) wine.
•Napa, Stag’s Leap, Oakville, Carneros, Russian River, Dry Creek Valley, Monterey County

Chile, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Italy (Super Tuscans)

Merlot cont'd
Cherry, plum, fig, prune, chocolate, cocoa, “velvety smooth” tannins

Pairs well with:
Duck, goose, game, lamb, pates, curry, tandoor, sweet/savory dishes (baking spice)

Botrytis Cinerea - Pourriture Noble – Noble Rot
Sur Lie and Battonage
Color: Pale straw with greenish hue
Flavors/aromas: Gooseberry, grapefruit, lime, peach, melon, fresh-cut grass, hay, flint mineral
Also look for: canned green beans or asparagus, cat urine

Food pairing: seafood is classic in the Loire region because of the acidity of the wine, goat cheese, tomato dishes, herbaceous dishes, salad

Characteristics of Sauvignon Blanc
Pouilly Fume
Canned Asparagus
Wine Sales and Wine List Creation
Conversion – malting
Grinding – milling
Extraction – mashing and lautering (temperature to best extract sugars or step mashing)
Wort – sugar water
Sparging – pumping over and rinsing with water
Boil or brew – deactivates enzymes, kills bacteria, precipitates protiens
Hopping – early = bittering, later = aroma (including dry hopping or hop back)
Fermentation – pitching yeast (ale 3-7 days, lager 2 weeks)
Conditioning – magic happens
Lagers stored 2-4 weeks at 32 to clarify and develop clean, crisp carbonation

80% starch reserves
2-row and 6-row
Malting – steeping grains in water and letting them germinate – Diastase converts starch to sugar (presumably so the plant can grow)
Drying or kilning the malt to stop the growth process
Pale malt and Pilsner malt– floor-dried at 122 degrees
Crystal Malt or Caramel malt – crystallized sugars from roasting - range of colors
Amber, Vienna and Munich malts – toasted to a red color
Chocolate, Black Patent, Black Barley – dark malts add color and toasted flavors

Alpha (bittering) and Beta (aromatic) acids

Used to balance the sweetness of the malt
Add bitterness, tannins and aroma to beer

Saccharomyces cerevisiae – Top fermenting (Ale)

Saccharomyces carlsbergensis – Bottom fermenting (Lager – from lagering or storing)

Louis Pasteur discovered yeast in 1857

Soft water makes light beer with softer mouthfeel

Higher mineral content makes for better full-bodied ales

Pilsner – Pilzn in the Czech republic – light malt character and distinct hop aroma
Dortmunder Export – higher alcohol, more hops, more unfermentable sugar
Marzen or Vienna – amber, “Marzen” is German for “March” the end of the brewing season. Stronger beers to last the summer. Usually drank at Oktoberfest.
Bock – dark, strong, malty (stronger versions are called Dopplebock) maibock at the end of the brewing season. Billy goat.

30-50% unmalted wheat, wild yeast, brettanomyces, yeast with flor-like character that produces lactic acid, sour beer

A blended lambic, using old and new beer

Fruit beer:
Cherries, raspberries, apple, peach, currants added to lambics

Light and heat are bad

Bottles (12oz, 22oz, 750ml) Cans (12oz, 25oz) kegs (1/2 barrel (bbl), 15.5 gallons, ¼ bbl 7.5 gallons, 1/6 bbl 5 gallons)

Proper pouring

Beer and Food:
Crisp beers – like sparkling wine – fatty rich food
Bitter beers – hops act like tannins – rich foods and meat
Malty beer – good with spicy food (bitter beer is not) and acidic food

Pale Ale – Made with pale malt – Burtonization
IPA – strong hops and high alcohol to make the trip to India
Brown – malty, amber and chocolate malts
Trappist – monastery ale from Belgium (candy sugar and Belgian yeast) secondary fermentation
Stout & Porter – dark malts
•Sweet Stout – addition of sugar
•Cream or Milk Stout – lactose
•Oatmeal Stout – oats – creamier
•Porter – drank by the Porters in England in the 1800s
•Stout Porter – extra strong (dark) porter – shortened to “Stout”

Northern German = Weisse (White) lactic acid (tart)
Southern German = Weizen (wheat) hefe (yeast) fruity, citrusy, clovelike

Beer that is racked directly into casks or firkins

Nitrogenated beer
High pressure nitrogen is pumped into beer and pushes CO2 out

Balsamic Vinegar
"Without question, the greatest invention in the history of mankind is beer. Oh, I grant you that the wheel was also a fine invention, but the wheel does not go nearly as well with pizza." ~ Dave Barry

“Beer is proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy.”
~Benjamin Franklin

Trebbiano and Lambrusco grape juice is reduced to 30%
Aged in a series of 7 casks made of different woods (chestnut, acacia, cherry, oak, mulberry, ash) solera style – 12, 18 and 25 year vinegars – up to $400 for a 100ml bottle
Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia
Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena

the Guest
1. Overwhelmed – looking for guidance
2. Image Seeker – sees wine as a status symbol – Googles at the table
3. Traditionalist – like established vineyards/varietals
4. Savvy Shopper – research to find a great buy
5. Satisfied Sipper – know what they like – wine is a beverage
6. Enthusiasts – know a lot about wine (collectors)

Role of the Sommelier
• Try to pair wine with food
• Know about your list and make recommendations (white/red, fruity/dry, full-bodied/medium-bodied)
• Offer at least three choices
• Educate the guest as well as your coworkers

Wine List Format
• By region
• By varietal
• By price
• By style
• Reserve list

• Straight markup (300% markup means $10 wine
sells for $30 and $40 wine sells for $120)
• Flexible markup (lower cost wines have high markup and higher cost wines have medium/low markup)
• Cost plus (all wine sells for $10 over the cost: $10 wine is $20, $20 wine is $30)
• Reserve list pricing separate
• By the glass
o 5 glasses per bottle ($50 wine is $10/glass)
o 5 glasses per bottle plus markup ($50 wine is $11/glass)
o 4 glasses per bottle ($50 wine is $12.50/glass)

Wine List
• Base on style of food and
• Price point of menu (Hot Zone = double to triple the price of an entree)
• Bottle (750 ml)
• ½ bottle (375 ml)
• Glass (5 ounces – 5 glasses in 25.5 oz bottle)
• Magnum (1,500 ml)
• Flights (2 oz)
o Vertical flight (i.e. 2003, 2004, 2005 same wine)
o Horizontal flight (i.e. three different Pinot Noirs from 2003)
o Theme (aromatic, region, body, varietal etc.)

Menu Matching (tomorrow)

Pairing wine or beer with specific menu item

Wine Dinners
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