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The fewer differences found, the more closely related they are.
Also, the more differences found, the less closely related they are. Explain how variations in specific molecules can indicate phylogeny. Phylogeny: Study of the evolutionary past of a species.
Proteins are determined genetically, so if there is a near match in the amino acid sequence of two proteins from different species then the genes in those proteins likely evolved from a gene in a common ancestor of the two organisms.
To determine the degree of difference among different species, scientists examine different aspects of the species that are being compared.
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter23/animation_-_phylogenetic_trees.html Determination: Discuss how biochemical variations can be used as an evolutionary clock Phylogeny and Systematics Morphology= the physical features (Form and structure)
Polypeptide sequences= trace of common ancestors
- Done with Haemoglobin, cytochrome C, and chlorophyll
Nucleic Acid Sequences= shows the genes/any mutations making species different D.5.4 D.5.4 DNA Hydridization
Step 1: Take a homologous strand of DNA from both species
Step 2: Fuse them together
Step 3: Observe places where they do/do not connect (determine mutations)
Also, depending on how many differences, determine how much longer it has been since 2 species split, compared to another 2 species. D.5.4 Evolutionary clock: mutations are random, but
sometimes occur at a predicted rate.
If there are more differences in the amino acid sequence of a protein, then a species has a common ancestor with another species further apart.