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Vicky Bartholomew

on 17 March 2014

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Transcript of Dyslexia

Examples of Dyslexia

• Understand students preferred learning style (Hargreaves, 2007)
• Convey positive expectations regarding success by consistently setting high expectations- make it clear exactly how the learners will be empowered to meet them
• Use the jargon- refer to individuals learning preference
• Be positive- say what you do want, rather than say 'don't'.
• Set targets, expectations and assessment criteria at the start of a course and at the start of each lesson.
• Constantly look for opportunities to utilise KAV and the seven intelligences.
• Always start with the big picture and then chunk down.
• Build in review opportunities to enable learners to 'show they know'
• Use mind-maps
• See learning problems as opportunities to try different approaches
• Have fun! (Peer & Reid, 2001).

Case Study
Difficulties observed:

difficulty relating sounds to letters
written work is minimal with many spelling errors
results of diagnostic testing of spelling age and reading comprehension are significantly lower than his peers
struggles to read age appropriate texts as the words are too difficult to decode as well as the words and lines of text are too close together causing the words to blur together
Dyslexia & Inclusion
What is Dyslexia?
Students that have been diagnosed with Dyslexia generally have a learning difficulty with reading and writing. Dyslexia can be described as a severe difficulty in learning to read, particularly as it relates to decoding and spelling.

• Has difficulty segmenting words into sounds & blending sounds
• Confuses similar letters & words, such as b and d, and was and saw
• Listens and speaks well but decodes poorly when reading

(Vaughn, S., Bos, C., & Schumm, J. 2009)

“Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom strategies”. (AUSPELD, 2014).
Pat decided time move life. tired stresses job dreamed travel guide! world, meet new people, experience cultures far lands day's work belief. needed find opportunity new life world. miracle, day Pat learned travel agency block home looking travel guide! stop? Sicily! adventures!
Dyslexia and Self-Esteem
Teaching Adjustments
Barratt-Pugh, C., Rivalland, J., Hamer, J., & Adams, P. (2006). Literacy learning in Australia: Practical ideas for early childhood educators. Victoria, Australia: Thomson Dunmore Press.

BBC Newsround. (n.d.). Try being me, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/20789777

Bond, J., Coltheart, M., Connell, T., Firth, N., Hardy, M., Nayton, M., . . . Weeks, A. (2010). Helping people with dyslexia: a national action agenda. Canberra. Australia: Retrieved from http://www.rch.org.au/uploadedFiles/Main/Content/cah/dyslexia_a_national_action_agenda.pdf.

Davis Dyslexia Association International. (2007). Thoendel Learning Centre, from http://www.tlc-ne.com/

Glazzard, J. (2010). The impact of dyslexia on pupils' self esteem. British Journal Of Learning Support, 25(2), 63-69. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9604.2010.01442.x/full doi:10.1111/j.1467-9604.2010.01442.x

Learning, N. (Producer). (2010). What's it like being dyslexic? Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com

Peer, L., & Reid, G. (Eds.). (2001). Dyslexia - successful inclusion in the secondary school. London: David Fulton Publishers.

Reid, G. (2011). Dyslexia (3rd ed.). London, England: Continuum.

Vaughn, S., Bos, C., & Schumm, J. (2009). Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk. Boston, MA: Pearson International.
(Davis Dyslexia Association International, 2007)
Case Study
Strengths observed:

High listening comprehension
participates well in group discussions and group activities
will attempt work independently although may require some initial assistance
Enjoys hands on and creative activities
Case Study
Implications on participation:

avoids reading aloud in front of his peers
is easily distracted by others and is often the cause of distraction to others
requires assistance to read year level texts and worksheets in order to understand what he is required to do
written work produced is well below standards produced by his peers
written work often does not adequately demonstrate his full capability or understanding
is the most likely class member to engage in teasing and bullying/aggressive behaviour
Case Study
Classroom strategies adopted:
Very few strategies adopted
no visible differentiation to curriculum
classroom seating arrangements adjusted to reduce disruption to student
some reading texts have been enlarged to assist reading
student receives help when needed to read classroom texts and is not called on to read aloud
student sees a speech pathologist outside of school
Self Perception
Dyslexia and Self-Esteem
"Well I had this teacher called Mrs P and she really didn't understand. She was always telling my parents that I was too slow. She used to bully me. She used to get me infront of the class and humiliate me in front of the others. She'd make me sit in the corner and encourage the class to laugh at me. She'd shout at me a lot. She used to call me stupid and a baby." Students no.8
Teacher Interaction
"Well the person I think has done the most is Mrs S. She has done the most out of the school. She knows how I feel. She is qualified to work with dyslexic people.She's always been there if I'e needed someone to talk to or needed help. She's the only teacher in the school that's really done wonders for me." Student no.9.

(Glazzard, 2010, pp. 63--69)
Dyslexia and Self Esteem
Peer Interaction
"I was doing this egyptian thing and I needed the alphabet to change it into hieroglyphics. I couldn't remember the alphabet so I asked someone in class and they started to make fun of me calling me a baby." Student no.5
"No I've not suffered any bullying. Most of my mates are very supportive like J, who I've been with since nursery. He knows what I struggle with and I know what he struggles with so we help each other". Student no.2

(Glazzard, 2010, pp. 63--69)
Dyslexia and Self-Esteem
Influence of Parents
"My dad refused to believe I was stupid. He said there's something wrong but he's definitely not bloody stupid. My parents are completely supportive. My dad got me a laptop and everything." Student no.8
"Yeah both my parents are supportive. My dad took me for the actual tests. They encourage me to do my best." Student no.6

(Glazzard, 2010, pp. 63--69)
Dyslexia and Self-Esteem
Learned Helplessness
" Well I felt kind of disappointed with myself because I couldn't do stuff, so because I couldn't do it, I just didnt bother doing it. I didn't know I'm dyslexic but I knew I was finding it hard. Now I know I'm dyslexic, I don't think it gives me a reason to mess about. There's no point really." Students no. 4.

(Glazzard, 2010, pp. 63--69)
"I pretty much felt I was stupid and I had something wrong with me. I wasn't confident. I wouldn't show anybody my work. I would usually just screw it up cos I didn't want anyone to see it." Student no.8
"They were writing really fast and I couldn't keep up with them. I felt left out. They were like way in front and I was like way behind. It made me feel bad nearly all the time." Student no.6.

(Glazzard, 2010, pp. 63--69)
• Increasing alphabet knowledge- using name of letters frequently during reading.
• Raising phonemic awareness- pointing out & playing with syllables, rhyming & initial sounds.
• Highlighting & discussing print- using the appropriate print labels (‘word’, ‘letter’), pointing out one-to-one relationships & demonstrating the directionality of print (left to right).
• Combining alphabet letters & their sounds- naming, letters, highlighting their shapes & modelling the sounds of the letters.

(Barratt-Pugh, Rivalland, Hamer, & Adams, 2006)

Strategies for facilitating important decoding prerequisites
Colour Paper Test
Coloured paper can reduce the blurring and blending of words experienced by some students with Dyslexia. The colour of the paper used will depend on the student.

Test by using either colour paper overlays, paragraphs printed on a variety of coloured paper or through apps available for iPad such as iOverlay or aaLuminate.
Pat decided
that it was
on with his
He was
of the
in his
and had always
of being a
travel guide!
To be able to see the
world, meet new people,
all in a
day's work
would be beyond
He just
and his
new life
would bring him all over the

As if by
the very next
day Pat learned
that the
travel agency
just a
from his
for a
travel guide!
stop? Sicily!
And so his

(Davis Dyslexia Association International, 2007)
The Dyslexia-Speld Foundation has a Perth office which offers the following services:

Free information evenings
Professional Learning
Parents' and students' workshops
(Parents and Caregivers)
Parents and Caregivers provide vital support for students with dyslexia.
It is important to have a home-school relationship
Include parent in home reading and writing task. Eg: Homework
This gives the parents an opportunity to help teach their child to read and write and it also helps them gauge the child’s progress. Parents will be able to identify their child’s reading ability and level, check their phonics when reading aloud, formation of letters and their spelling capabilities.
This communication can help both parents and the skills of teachers. Information on the child at school and at home can ease anxiety and confusion as well as improve the teachers practise
Involving the parents like this not only keep the parent informed but can be helpful to the teacher. The parents will be able to provide information on the child’s progress at home, where they may be more comfortable to read aloud and have no time limit.
(Reid, 2011)
Stakeholders Continued
Department of Education
AUSPELD (The Australian Federation of Specific Learning Difficulty Associations)
Dyslexia - SPELD Foundation
LDA (Learning Difficulties Australia
ALDA (The Australian Learning Disability Association
Speech Pathology Australia
DDOLL (Developmental Disorders of Language and Literacy Network

(Bond et al., 2010)
The purpose of education for all children is the same; the goals are the same. But the help that individual children need in progressing towards them will be different.
Providing a flexible range of strategies in a customised package ensures that the pupils, in gaining their entitlement to the common curriculum, can still enjoy educational achievement and can look forward to fulfilling adult life.
This provides differentiation, the building of self-esteem, the encouragement of learner autonomy and the development of skills. It is based on an eclectic mix of strategies and approaches; pragmatism; customisation of the balance of the child’s needs and preferences, and the reconciliation of a well-established collaborative approach with some specialised interventions to suit the needs of this client group.

Inclusion Strategies
• Collaborative teamwork
• Shared framework
• Clear role relationships among professionals
• Effective use of support staff (EA’s)
• Importance of supportive teacher behaviours & attitudes
• Fostering of peer acceptance in inclusive settings
Inclusion Strategies
Full transcript