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Unit 5 Lab Questions

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brayden stoops

on 7 September 2017

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Transcript of Unit 5 Lab Questions

Unit 5 Lab Questions
Poisons and Toxins
Imagine that you are working as a veterinary scientist and you have been called in to assess some grazing pasture for livestock. Using information from the following links or other resources that you find in your research, prepare a report on five different plants that pose a threat to grazing livestock in one Canadian province.


Identify five different plant species that are potentially poisonous or toxic to livestock such as cows or horses.
Describe what the plants look like, including descriptions of any flowers or seeds, so that the farmer or rancher could identify the plants.
Discuss the typical habitat for the plant. Where would the plant most likely be found?
Describe the symptoms or signs of this poisonous/toxic plant in livestock.
Assess how toxic the plant is. For example, how much of a plant would cattle have to ingest for the cattle to become ill.
Identify what treatment options might be available for livestock who have been affected. If a plant is highly toxic, it is ok to state that treatment is unlikely to succeed.
Water Hemlock.
>Habitat and Distribution
Open, moist to wet environments; throughout North America.
>Affected Animals.
All
>Important Characteristics.
White flower, umbels. Veins of leaflets ending at notches. Stems hollow except at nodes. Tuberous roots from chambered rootstock.
>Toxic Principles and Effects.
Resinoids (cicutoxin, cicutol) in roots, stem base, young leaves. Toxicity retained when dry, except in hay. Rapid onset of clinical signs, with death in 15–30 min. Salivation, muscular twitching, dilated pupils. Violent convulsions, coma, death. Poisoning in people common.
>Comments and Treatments.
Sedatives to control spasm and heart action. Prognosis good if alive 2 hr after ingestion.
Oak
>Habitat and Distribution.
Most deciduous woods; throughout North America.
>Affected Animals.
All grazing animals, mostly cattle.
>Important Characteristics.
Mostly deciduous trees, rarely shrubs, with 2–4 leaves clustered at tips of all twigs. Diverse leaf shape. Acorn fruiting body.
>Toxic Principles and Effects.
Gallotannin thought to be the toxin (young leaves and swollen or sprouting acorn). Anorexia, rumen stasis, constipation, followed by dark tarry diarrhea, dry muzzle, frequent urination, rapid weak pulse, death. Lesions include perirenal edema, nephrosis, gastroenteritis.
>Comments and Treatments.
Diet must consist of >50% oak buds and young leaves for a period of time. Increased BUN with diet history diagnostic. Treatment symptomatic. Oral ruminatorics helpful.
Onions (Cultivated and Wild)
> Habitat and Distribution
Cultivated and grown on rich soils throughout USA
>Affected Animals
Cattle, horses, sheep, dogs
> Important Characteristics.
Biennials and perennials, bulb plants, onion odor. Leaves basal, green, hollow, cylindrical (A cepa), lustrous green, flat (A canadense); flowers on hollow flowering stalks, terminal umbels of many small blooms; fruits 3-celled capsules with many seeds.
>Toxic Principle and Effects.
N-propyl disulfide, an oxidant, in all parts. Anemia develops within days of exposure. Toxicosis in cattle associated with prolonged ingestion of large amounts of onions. N-propyl disulfide inhibits RBC glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, leading to hemolysis and formation of Heinz bodies. Clinical signs are hemoglobinuria, diarrhea, loss of appetite, jaundice, ataxia, collapse, and possible death if untreated. Hemolytic anemia reported in livestock ingesting wild onions. Heinz body anemia; swollen, pale, necrotic liver; hemosiderin in liver, kidneys, and spleen are reported pathologic lesions.
>Comments and Treatments.
Clinical signs similar to toxicity induced by S-methylcysteine sulfoxide (a rare toxic amino acid in Brassica spp) in livestock. Susceptibility to onion poisoning varies across animal species: cattle more susceptible than horses and dogs, which are more susceptible than sheep and goats. Remove animals from source and prevent future access to cull onions. Symptomatic and supportive care essential.






Sweet Clover
>Habitat and Distribution.
Commonly found on alkaline soils, fields, roadsides, and waste places; forage crop in southern and northern USA.
>Affected Anaimals.
Most commonly cattle, also horses and sheep.
>Important Characteristics.
Annual or biennial herb 3–6 ft tall. Leaves alternate, pinnately compound with 3 obovate leaflets, serrated margins. Yellow or white flowers on racemes. Small 1-seeded pods.
>Toxic Principle and Effects.
Poisoning occurs when sweet clover hay or silage is consumed continually for relatively long periods. Diagnosis is made by identifying compatible signs and lesions and markedly prolonged blood clotting time or demonstration of reduced plasma prothrombin concentrations. The nature of the coagulopathy can be confirmed in the laboratory when the prothrombin time is prolonged. Sweet clover poisoning is normally a herd problem, making conditions that affect individual animals,such as blackleg, pasteurellosis, bracken fern poisoning, and aplastic anemia, less likely causes.
> Comments and Treatments.
The hypoprothrombinemia, hemorrhages, and anemia can be immediately corrected, to a degree, by IV administration of whole blood. This may be difficult in large animals, because effective dosages range from 2–10 L of fresh blood per 1,000 lb (450 kg) body wt. Care should be taken to ensure that donor animals are not receiving sweet clover feed. All clinically affected animals should receive a transfusion, which can be repeated if necessary. In addition, all severely affected animals should receive parenteral administration of synthetic vitamin K1 (phytonadione). SC or IM injection is recommended to avoid the substantial risk of anaphylaxis; SC vitamin K1 may not be as effective as IM treatment. The usual dosage recommended for cattle is 1 mg/kg, bid-tid for 2 days. Although it is more costly, vitamin K1 is more effective than K3 (menadione). Because reversal of the dicumarol by vitamin K1 requires synthesis of coagulation proteins, several hours are required for significant improvement in homeostasis, and >24 hr is required to completely restore coagulation. Either vitamin K1 or a blood transfusion is sufficient to correct mild cases if additional exposure is stopped.





Poor Man's Alfalfa
>Habitat and Distribution.
Throughout North America
> Affected Animals.
Cattle, sheep.
>Important Characteristics.
Annual to 5 ft tall. Many branched stems give bushy appearance. Leaves petiolate, lanceolate, thin, and flat; alternate. Fruit has 5 wedge-shaped wings.
>Toxic Principles and Effects.
An alkaloid has been suggested. This plant may also accumulate nitrate and oxalate. Disease syndromes: photosensitization, weight loss, and polioencephalomalacia, which seems intensified by slow growth and sulfates.
> Comments and Treatments.
Harvested foliage is source of toxin. Protect from sun in case of photosensitization; treat polioencephalomalacia with vitamin B. Supplement with copper (preventive against polioencephalomalacia).



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