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The Inuit Peoples of Canada

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Emily Fehlauer

on 23 April 2010

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Transcript of The Inuit Peoples of Canada

Collective rights are rights held by groups in Canadian society that are recognized and protected by Canada's Constitution. The Inuit Peoples of Canada The Inuit were initially living in Northwestern Alaska. Beginning about a thousand years ago, these early Inuit began to spread east into Arctic Canada. They lived in houses made of driftwood and sod and spoke an early version of Inuktitut. First contact with the Europeans was in the 1570’s, with Martin Frobisher, who was searching for the Northwest Passage. Few Europeans were unprejudiced enough to think they had anything to learn from the Inuit. The Europeans brought them iron, which they valued for making tools such as harpoon points and knife blades. By 1925, the Inuit had become subjects if not quite citizens of the Canadian state. Under the missionaries, many traditional beliefs and practices went underground. The Inuit lost power over their own lives in the early 20th Century. Many slipped into deep poverty because of fluctuations in fur prices. the Inuit were treated as almost citizens but too far away to be concerned about. History Collective Rights Collective rights are important to all Canadians because they put an umbrella of protection over the group you and others belong to. It recognizes the founding people of Canada, the First Nations and Francophones. It lets the other Canadians who don’t belong to these groups understand how unique they are. Before the collective rights were introduced the Inuit were mainly ignored and not widely known about because they lived so far North (isolated). The Constitution Act 1982 The Royal Proclamation Legislations That Confirmed the Collective Rights of The Inuit Inuit Dog Sled Team Traditional Clothing Soapstone Art Traditional Transportation Kayak Thanks For Watching! "Juicy Blubberbits" :) The term Inuit means "The People" Their territory stretches about 2,800 kilometers from west to east and has four time zones. South to north, it extends roughly from the tree line north about 3,000 kilometers. These general boundaries enclose approximately 6,000,000 square kilometers of land and offshore territory.
The traditional Inuit dietary staples were seal, whale, caribou, walrus, polar bear, arctic hare, fish, birds, berries and sometimes blubber as a dessert! Because they ate raw food, and every part of the animal, the Inuit did not lack vitamins, even though they had almost no vegetables to eat. Most Inuit children ski or ride snowmobiles to get to and from school A tradional bread, bannock, was made while trapping or living in camps. The dough could be wrapped around a stick and cooked over an open fire
Unlike many indigenous people in other parts of the world, the Inuit were not directly threatened with guns or violence, yet they certainly suffered as a result of policies and actions imposed on them by whalers, fur traders, missionaries, government, and most recently developers. As a result they are expected to abandon important cultural traditions and accept new ideologies. The Inuit’s collective rights secured their future and their children’s futures. Under the Constitution Act, section 25 and 35 recognized the Inuit as a distinctive group of Canadian aboriginals, who are neither First Nations nor Métis. Section 35 protects their fishing, logging, hunting, the right to land and the right to enforcement of treaties. In the 1960s, the Canadian government funded the establishment of secular, government-operated high schools in the Northwest Territories (including what is now Nunavut) and Inuit areas in Quebec and Labrador along with the residential school system. The Inuit began to emerge as a political force in the late 1960s and early 1970s. They formed new politically active associations in the early 1970s, starting with the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (Inuit Brotherhood and today known as Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami), Indian and Eskimo Association of the 60s, in 1971, and more region specific organisations shortly afterwards, including the Committee for the Original People's Entitlement, the Northern Quebec Inuit Association (Makivik Corporation) and the Labrador Inuit Association. These activist movements began to change the direction of Inuit society in 1975 with the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. This comprehensive land claims settlement for Quebec Inuit, along with a large cash settlement and substantial administrative autonomy in the new region of Nunavik, set the precedent for the settlements to follow. James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement In 1982, the Tunngavik Federation of Nunavut (TFN) was incorporated, in order to take over negotiations for land claims on behalf of the Inuit living in the eastern Northwest Territories, that would later become Nunavut, from the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, which became a joint association of the Inuit of Quebec, Labrador and the Northwest Territories. Inuvialuit Final Agreement. The Inuvialuit Final Agreement was the first comprehensive land claim agreement signed north of the 60th parallel. It took precedents over other Acts in consistent with it. The Act was also protected under the Constitution in that it cannot be changed by Parliament without the approval of the Inuvialuit.
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