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Transcript of David McClelland
An American Psychological Theorist noted for his work on Achievement Motivation. Born in Mt. Vernon, in New York State. McClelland would later on went to earn a variety of degrees; (May 20 1917 – March 27 1998) BA Wesleyan University in 1938.
MA University of Missouri
PhD Yale University
Taught At Connecticut University and Wesleyan University before joining the faculty of Harvard in 1956 where he spent 30 years of his life. McClelland served as the chairman of the Department of Social Relations. 1987 moved to Boston University where he was awarded the American Psychological Association.
Life Work Published Works Include: •The Achievement Motive (1953)
•The Achieving Society (1961)
•The Roots of Consciousness (1964)
•Power: The Inner Experience (1975)
•Human Motivation (1987)
McClelland's Theory of Needs
McClelland suggests that specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by early life experiences. McClelland put the human needs into three classified sections; Achievement, Affiliation, and Power. It was later on concluded that an individual’s motivation and overall effectiveness at work is directly related to the Three Needs.
(N-Ach) The need for achievement refers to the desire an individual has to complete difficult tasks successfully. Individuals with a high need for achievement desire: •Success and positive feedback
•Avoiding both low and high-risk situations, and excelling
•To be alone or surrounded by high-achievers
High achievers will avoid low-risk situations due to the lack of easy success. High-achievers are not gamblers of the sort, nor afraid to take risks. (N-Affil) Desire for harmonious relationships with other individuals. High affiliate’s have: •Must be liked by other individuals
•Conform to group norms
•Cooperation over competition
•Enjoy group work
Individuals with a high need for affiliation enjoy working in personal projects with other employees with relationships can develop. (N-Pow) The desire and need for power correlates directly with authority. There are two forms of power—institutional and personal. •Individuals with personal power want to direct others
•Individuals with institutional power want to direct large groups to help achieve a goal.
Individuals with a desire for personal power tend to be dysfunctional. These individuals will focus more on their own personal tasks, including achievement. Managers with institutional power are better and more successful leaders McClelland established a company in McBer Consulting Company, in 1963. There McClelland would design a competency test for all aspects of the job. . It was later on concluded that the best work motivators derive from using the Three Needs. High-achievement individuals need to be assigned hard tasks, and require as much feedback possible. The same applies for high affiliation; these employees will need a cooperative work environment.
Thematic Apperception Test Individuals are asked to write down descriptive response to unstructured images presented to them. The test apparently taps into the minds subconscious, which is then put down into written words. From there McClelland was able to see the repressed aspects of one’s life. Generally 30 cards would be shown to the individual. Ambigous Stimuli + Patients Response = Personality What has led up to the event shown?
What is happening at the moment?
What the characters are feeling and thinking?
What the outcome of the story was? Questions The End