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Transcript of Academic summaries
Analyze and use information from two or more sources.
The writer needs to infer and make explicit the relationships among the sources.
Can be more challenging to write.
the statue of liberty is
located in new york harbor.
The conventions governing the technical aspects of writing, including spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and abbreviations.
Read the article carefully, making sure you understand the contents.
of a good summary
Focus on the relevant aspects of the source text.
Present the source material in an accurate way.
Condense the source material and present it in the writer's own words.
The length of the summary should be determined by the instructor.
In other words...
How to do a
Create an outline that shows the main organization of the article.
Write down the key support points for the main topic.
Go through the process again, making changes as appropriate.
Do not give your opinion.
may be part of other work that you may do...
Spelling is important for exactly the same reason that grammar and punctuation are important: poor spelling makes for poor communication. Academic writing requires a high degree of accuracy, and this is reflected in the quality of the writing. Sloppy spelling gives the impression that you don’t care about the assignment.
Punctuation marks are signposts used by writers to give directions to their readers about which way a sentence is going. Using punctuation properly is one of the most crucial elements in making the meaning of the sentence absolutely clear.
Writing a word with its first letter
as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case.
"I have to go to work."
"Do I have to go to work?"
"I have to go to work!"
"Go to work!"
One independent clause
"We supervised the program"
2 or more IC joined by a conjunction
At least one IC and one or more DC
2 or more IC and at least one DC
"I will write the application and send it again"
"You earn money while you work"
"Some of the doctors, who have worked for 25 years, will retire this month"
Makes a statement
Tells to do something
Emphasizes or expresses emotion
3. When is Fred going to play baseball
5. I like dogs cats horses and elephants
4. I like to cook I like to
make cake bread and pie
Try to divide into sections
The transformation of the Nile River Basin
Topic of the passage.
The effect of the change in irrigation patterns is significant.
Rewriting someone else's idea using our own words.
Be sure to include all the information
Use different forms of a word
ORIGINAL: People think it is asocial to sit at a computer terminal at a cafe.
PARAPHRASED: People think it is antisocial to sit at a computer terminal at a cafe.
Shortened version of a text which gives the reader's idea.
2. I love it
It should be about one-third as long as the original.
Include full name of the author, tittle, date of publication and focus thesis.
It forms the body of the paper. It has to support the focus sentence directly. They usually have this structure:
1. My sister is called Susan
she was born last year
- Repeat what you said early.
- Mention the importance of the text.
- Reread the entire thing and something will come to you to close the text.
"happy birthday, kayla!"
playing scrabble is a good way
to improve your vocabulary.
"place the flowers in the vase",
"and put them on the front table".
pizza and hamburgers
were popular choices for the party
Change active sentences to passive ones.
Change negative to affirmative or vice-versa.
PARAPHRASED: None of the political parties agreed on that particular issue.
ORIGINAL: All the political parties disagreed on that particular issue.
An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word (or phrase), which is pronounced identically to the long form of the word.
In APA, abbreviations should be limited to instances when:
a) the abbreviation is standard and will not interfere with the reader’s understanding (Eg. APA)
b) if space and repetition can be greatly avoided through abbreviations.
c) used for citations and references
What is a formal academic summary?
They usually take the form of a single,
fully paraphrased paragraph that
begins with a clear statement
of the author’s main claim.
Summaries vary according to
context, taking into account
the audience, and the purpose.
Your goal in a summary is to restate
the main ideas of the original text in
your own words.
Purpose of the summary
It includes only the ideas of the original
text, not your response to those ideas.
It includes only the most
A summary is a shortened, paraphrased version of
the original text that restates as neutrally
as possible the author’s argument.
It is the distillation, condensation, or reduction of a larger work into its primary notions.
Webster's calls a summary the "general idea in brief form"
(Areba y Weber, 2004)
The primary purpose of a summary is to "give an
representation of what the work says; you should not include your own ideas or interpretations"
(Paul Clee and Violeta Clee, American Dreams, 1999)
When you are asked to read two books and establish the similarities and differences between them:
When you paraphrase...
Make notes or highlight information on the article, noting the thesis statement and the major supporting details.
Why? What Type?
The Nile River Basin
Why is it useful?
After reading a novel you are asked to write a summary giving your personal opinion about it:
which is the most common type of summary :
Gives a more nearly complete picture of the structure of the original. :
Smaller version of the focus.
Quote or paraphrase
Are a very useful tool.
Allow people to share information quickly and efficiently.
Summaries also help people remember things.
Teachers ask students to write summaries for a demonstration of the student's understanding.
Can also be effective evidence in an argument.
What are summaries good for?
Interprets and evaluates the source.
USE A DICTIONARY
It is the most common type of summary.
Give a more nearly complete picture of the structure of the original.
Adopts a more distant perspective, describing the original text rather than directly presenting the information it contains.
Expresses the main points in your own words.
Adopts the tone of the original full text, simply presenting the information it contains in shorter form.
Presents information more compactly and more precisely.
Demonstrates critical reading and writing skills.
Makes a clear distinction between the author's and your own thoughts.
You are allow to agree/disagree or criticize the author's opinion.
(Swales & Feak, 2004)
(Swales & Feak, 2004)
(Swales & Feak, 2004)