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Periodic Table of the Elements - 8th Grade

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by

William Begoyan

on 27 September 2016

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Transcript of Periodic Table of the Elements - 8th Grade

Page 13 in ISN (page 130-160 in textbook)
By: Mr. Begoyan
Dmitri Mendeleev
An
element
is a pure substance consisting of a single atom.
In 1869 there were less than 70 known elements.
A Russian scientist,
Mendeleev
, discovered a set of patterns that applies to all elements.
He predicted how they would be organized based on their properties (he even left blank spaces for where he thought new elements would be discovered!)
Atomic and Mass Numbers
An atom of an element can sometimes have a different number of neutrons, this is rare. We call them
isotopes
.
(and electrons)
(Protons + Neutrons)
In
Periods
, the atomic number and mass increase from left to right.
As you go from left to right, the properties of elements change as well.
Periods & Groups

The Periodic Table is organized into Periods and Groups.
P. 1
P. 2
P. 3
P. 4
P. 5
P. 6
P. 7
P. 1
P. 2
P. 3
Always the
smaller number
Always the
bigger number
Groups
, or families, designate elements with similar reactive characteristics.
Metals
Metals dominate the periodic table, making up 91 out of 118 known elements.
All metals share the following characteristics to a degree.
All metals have
luster
(are shiny).
All metals are
malleable
(can be hammered).
All metals are
ductile
(can be stretched).
All metals are good
conductors
of heat and electricity.
All metals also undergo
corrosion
to a degree, which is a reaction with oxygen.
Group 1: Alkali Metals
Most reactive of metals.
Will react with just air.
Most are soft.
Never found in pure form in nature.
Not an Alkali Metal!
Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals
Not as reactive as group 1, but still very reactive.
Most are hard and grey-white in color.
Also never found in pure form in nature.
Groups 3-12: Transition Metals
Most metals fall in here.
Not as reactive as groups 1 and 2.
Most are hard and shiny and excellent conductors.
Groups 13-15 Mixed: Other Metals
Similar to transition metals for the most part.
Groups 13-16 Mixed : Metalloids
Cross between metal and non-metal.
Have metallic luster.
Brittle and are semi-conductors.
Groups 14-16 Mixed : Non-Metals
No luster, very dull.
Brittle and very poor conductors.
Group 17: Halogens
Non-Metals.
All are toxic.
Most reactive non-metals, very reactive!
Group 18 : Inert/Noble Gasses
Not chemically active.
Are all gasses.
Most are used in lighting and photography.
Lanthanides
Also known as
Rare Earth Metals
Rarely used by themselves, typically combined with other metals.
Make up strong magnets.
Actinides
All are radioactive metals.
All are unstable.
All have the ability to undergo nuclear reactions.
Most are not naturally occurring.
Questions
Who was Dmitri Mendeleev?
What is the difference between the atomic number and atomic mass?
What are the characteristic of all metals?
What is the purpose of periods and groups in the periodic table?
More questions
What can we find in group 1?
What can we find in group 2?
Tell me about transitional Metals.
What about Semi-Metals/Metalloids?
Tell me about Halogens.
What can we find in group 18?
Tell me about Lanthanides.
Tell me about Actinides.
Avid EQ: Is there a reason why the elements are arranged the way they are on the Periodic Table?
Homework
On page 12 describe how and why the periodic table is structured.
Full transcript