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Anglo-Saxon & Old English History
Transcript of Anglo-Saxon & Old English History
Pre-Historical – 1066 A.D. Overview of Periods of Early English HistoryPre-History—1066 A. D. Roman Occupation 55 B. C. – 410 A. D. Anglo-Saxon Period 410 – 787 A. D. Viking Invasions 787 – 1066 A. D. Norman Conquest begins in 1066 Pre-Roman/Pre-Historical
up to 55 B.C. PRe-Historical/ Pre-Roman The island we know as England was occupied by a race of people called the Celts. One of the tribes was called they Brythons or Britons (where we get the term Britain)
The Celts were Pagans and their religion was know as “animism” a Latin word for “spirit.” Celts saw spirits everywhere
Druids were their priests; their role was to go between the gods and the people Roman Occupation
55 B.C - 410 A.D. Hadrian's Wall Julius Caesar begins invasion/occupation in 55 B.C.
Occupation completed by Claudius in 1st cent. A.D.
Hadrian’s Wall built about 122 A.D.
Romans “leave” in 410 A.D. because Visigoths attack Rome
St. Augustine (the “other” St. Augustine) lands in Kent in 597 and converts King Aethelbert (king of Kent, the oldest Saxon settlement) to Christianity; becomes first Archbishop of Canterbury Important Events During Roman Occupation Military—strong armed forces (“legions”)
Pushed Celts into Wales and Ireland
Prevented Vikings from raiding for several hundred years: C. Warren Hollister writes, “Rome’s greatest gift to Britain was peace”
Government (fell apart when they left)
Walls, villas, public baths (some remains still exist)
Language and Writing
Latin was official language
Practice of recording history led to earliest English “literature” being documentary
Christianity beginning to take hold, especially after St. Augustine converts King Aethelbert Important Cultural and Historical Results of the Roman Occupation The Anglo-Saxon Period
410-787 410- 450 Angles and Saxons invade from Baltic shores of Germany, and the Jutes invade from the Jutland peninsula in Denmark
The Geats are a tribe from Jutland
Nine Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms eventually became the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy (England not unified), or “Seven Sovereign Kingdoms” Important Events in the Anglo-Saxon Period Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy Kent
Essex (East Saxon)
Sussex (South Saxon)
Wessex (West Saxon) Heptarchy = Seven Kingdoms Viking Invasions 787-1066 By definition, Vikings were sea-faring (explorers, traders, and warriors) Scandinavians during the 8th through 11th centuries. Except for the Celts* and the Romans, all of the cultures who successfully invaded England in the first millennium were from Northern Europe at one time or another. The Angles, Saxons, Frisians, and Jutes were from the Baltic region, and the Normans (1066) were primarily from Normandy and had originally been from Norway They were all Vikings Politically and Culturally
Continued political instability and conflict (i.e., tribal war): there was no central government or church*
The Anglo-Saxon code (more on this when we read Beowulf)
Linguistically (The English Language at its Earliest)
The English language is “born” during the first millennium and is known as Old English (OE). Anglo-Saxon is the term for the culture.
Old English is mainly Germanic** in grammar (syntax and morphology) Important Results of the Viking Invasions up to 55 B.C Early Englan was Created by 3 Invasions 1. Roman Occupation 55 B.C. -410 A.D. (Latin) 2. Anglo-Saxon and Viking Invastions 410-1066 A.D. (German) 3. The NOrman INvasion in 1066 A.D. (French) eiofj;lsdjf;lsdj;l