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Transcript of Expressionism
Mackenzie Grahek Expressionism Describes any style where the artist's subjective feelings take precedence over objective observation, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Definition of Expressionism Techniques of Expressionism Art movement that developed in Germany in the early 20th century, where the expressive ideal had its greatest influence Expressionist artists looked to Gauguin and Van Gogh as their predecessors A modernist movement initially in poetry and painting swirling, swaying, exaggerated brush strokes, and distortion using vivid colors meant to convey emotional state of anxieties of the modern world 1863-1944 Edvard Munch Norwegian Post-Impressionist painter Created lithographs, etchings, and woodcuts Developed a painting style that rejected naturalism using free flowing lines to express and personify emotion His paintings expressed anxieties of people within the modernized society of Europe After nervous breakdown 1908-1909 his work became less intense, but his early, darker paintings define his legacy Edvard Munch His 22 work series, Frieze of Life, includes The Kiss, The Voice, and his best known work, The Scream He made four versions of The Scream: two in pastel and two in oil paint The only version sold to a person was sold to an unidentified phone bidder at an auction. The rest are in museums in his homeland of Norway Edvard Munch "Illness, insanity, and death were the black angels that kept watch over my cradle and accompanied me all my life." Die Brücke (The Bridge) Made use of a technique that was intentionally unsophisticated and crude Founded in 1905 in Dresden Germany by Ernest Ludwig Kirchner as an answer to the influence of Munch's social pessimism and the color of Fauvist paintings Artists were influenced by art form from Oceania and Africa Believed their social criticism of the ugliness of modern life could lead to a new and better future 1880-1938 Ernest Ludwig Studied architecture in Dresden, Germany
Discovered new motifs: city and street scenes in Berlin
War experiences and military services caused angst and illness
Spent long times in sanatoriums
Made woodcuts and pictures from the sanatoriums
Is one of Germany's most talented and influential Expressionists
After WWI illness drove him to settle Debos, Switzerland, where he painted many landscapes
When the Nazis rose to power he was a victim of their campaign against "Degenerate Art". Depressed and ill, he committed suicide. Ernest Ludwig Kircher "My paintings are allegories not portraits." 1867-1956 Emil Nolde Emil Nolde "The art of an artist must be his own art. It is...always a continuous chain fo little inventions, little technical discoveries of one's own, in one's relation to the tool, the material and the colors." 1884-1976 Karl Schmidt-Rotluff Painter, print maker, and sculptor
Enrolled in Dresden Technical University to study architecture in 1905
In 1906 he quit school to completely devote himself to painting
Helped Ernst Ludwig Kirchner found the Die Brücke group
Often used primary colors in his paintings.
Did a cycle of woodcuts trying to come to terms with the horrors of war Karl Schmidt-Rottluff "I really feel pressure to create something that is as strong as possible. The war has really swept away everything from the past." (The Blue Rider) Der Blaue Reiter Founded in 1911 in Munich by Vasily Kandinsky and Franz Marc
They shared an interest in abstract forms and prismatic colors which they felt had spiritual values that could counteract the materialism and corruption of their age
The flattened perspective and reductive forms of woodcut helped put the artists, especially Kondinsky, on the path toward abstraction in their painting 1866-1944 Wassily Kandinsky In 1896 he became Professor to the Department of Law, but decided to give up his successful career to completely devote himself to painting after visiting an exhibition of the French impressionists in Moscow
He left for Munich and entered a prestigious private painting school
1900 entered Munich academy of arts
Developed a color theory in which different colors have different meanings
His style changed from highly colorful landscapes to imaginative worlds using patches of color and forceful lines
Felt his mission was to translate the deepest human emotions into universally understood symbols and visual sensations 1880-1916 Franz Marc Born near German-Danish border in 1867
Adopted the name of hometown as his artist name
He worked for various furniture factories in Munich, Karlsruhe in Berlin
Employed as a teacher of industrial drawing at an industrial museum in St. Gallen 1892-1898
Became known for his small colored drawings of Swiss mountains
Moved to Munich after deciding to become a painter
He went from Romantic Naturalism to the discovery of his own style with a strong emphasis on glowing and colorful flower pictures
In 1906 he joined the Die Brücke group
Painted still life with exotic figures and mask pictures
Defamed during the war and banned from exhibiting his works
From 1939 to 1945 Nolde was in Seebüll painting "unpainted paintings" which consisted of more than 1,000 small watercolors
In his last years he mostly painted flower and landscape motifs in watercolor Born February 8th in Munich to landscape painter father
Studied theology and wanted to become a priest
Planned to continue his education at the University of Munich but decided to become an artist instead
He studied art at Munich Academy
His travels in the early 1900s sparked his interest in animals
When he returned home to Munich he visited the zoo everyday
The animals represented a spiritual attitude for him and believed they were more pure and natural than humans
He began to understand the harmony and organic unity of all living things
He was influenced by Van Gogh
In 1909 he met his future mentor Kandinsky and they formed the Der Blaue Reiter
In 1914 Marc volunteered for WWI and died in service in 1916. His death had a profound effect on those artists left behind Franz Marc "Art is nothing but the expression of our dream; the more we surrender to it the closer we get to the inner truth of things, our dream-life, the true life that scorns questions and does not see them." "Girl Combing Her Hair"
1892 "The Sick Child"
1885 "Davos under Snow"
1923 "Panama Girls"
1911 Fauvism vs. Expressionism Both project brilliant colors and spontaneous brush work
Fauvists were more concerned with formal aspects and organization
Expressionist more emotionally involved with art Wassily Kandinsky "The more frightening the world becomes... the more art becomes abstract." Works Cited Masks Still Life lll
1911 Large Poppies
1942 "Red Tower in a Park"
1910 "Angel of the Last Judgement"
1911 "Blooming Trees"
1909 "Autumn in Bavaria"
1908 "The Little Blue Horses"
1911 "Animals in a Landscape"
1914 1905-1925 :) The End