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Copy of The Hot Zone Project Template
Transcript of Copy of The Hot Zone Project Template
Emily Perkins, Nicole Carlson, Skyfa Inthavong Types of Viruses Components of Viruses Viruses vs. Bacteria Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles The Hot Zone Pandemic Similarities Genetic Variation into a Viral Population Genetic Variation into a Host Include the impact of the pandemic on the areas affected. Compare and Contrast on the impact of the pandemics in the Hot Zone and one of the pandemics that you chose above. Vaccination Current parent concerns Virus Prezi Can reproduce in two different ways
Known as "active" virus
Infects host cell and duplicates virus
Duplicated virus travels to other cells to infect Most complex virus that is best understood by scientists "Lysogenic Cycle
Infects host cell and replicates DNA with host cell DNA
Can transform into Lytic cycle
Symptoms may not be visible Virus Bacteria -Not living nor living
-No cells within virus
-DNA or RNA, never both
-Infects host to spread/reproduce -Living organism
-One cell, prokaryote
-DNA and RNA in nucleus
-Binary fission, asexual reproduction Bacteriophage Retrovirus Virus's containing RNA instead of DNA Replication of virus: After infection of host cell, RNA of virus acts as template for cDNA. RNA changes into DNA which is known as "Reverse Transcription"
Reverse Transcriptase - Enzyme that controls the process of reverse transcription Retrovirus's can live in it's host for many years, replicating the entire time. "Prophage" is the term used for a "permanent resident" Transduction Phage virus that needs small amounts of DNA as they infect host cells Two types of Transduction can occur; "Generalized" or "Specialized" Generalized DNA of bacteria is randomly moved while virus is in one cell and infecting another Specialized Specific DNA from bacteria is transferred from the bacteria to the virus upon infecting the cell Viruses are only able to survive inside a host cell DNA or RNA is enclosed in a protein layer known as a "Capsid"
Some viruses have adapted to having a "viral envelope" which helps aid the virus in infecting host cells
Specific receptors on the surface of the virus only allows the viruses to infect specific cell types
Viruses are generally only able to effect one species/organism, however mutations may cause the virus to infect multiple species Typhus Symptoms of Typhus Severe headache, high fever for long period of time, severe muscle pains, chills, blood pressure falls, as well as delirium.
A few days after the headache begins, a rash spreads from one's chest to the rest of the body. Impact on Society Typhus has been around for many hundreds of years, often impacting areas involved in war. During WWII, areas in North Africa and Europe were heavily impacted by typhus; especially concentration camps. Between the 8 year time period of 1917-1925, Russia experienced a Typhus outbreak in which 3 million of the 25 million infected, died of the virus. It is estimated that Typhus has killed more people than all wars combined. Cholera Symptoms of Cholera Diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration in severe cases,
low blood pressure may occur, as well as muscle cramps from dehydration Impact on Society Lytic Cycle Virus enters the host cell, taking complete control over cell
Replicates multiple times
Bursts host cell, releasing new virus phages
New virus phages infect other cells
Repeat Lysogenic Cycle Replicates inside host cell, does not kill cell
Stays within host cell, mixing in with cell's DNA (Becomes a Prophage)
Host cell divides, causing virus to replicate at the same time
Once many prophages have been created, lysogenic cycle switches into the lytic cycle In the past few hundred years, Cholera has infected multiple areas across the globe; killing millions total. Since Cholera is often spread through water, sewage systems have been improved to prevent outbreaks of Cholera. The most recent outbreak started in 1961 and has been occurring to this very day. In 1961, Cholera started in Indonesia and spread to other countries such as Asia, Africa, Europe. Eventually reaching the Americas in the early 1990's, many thousands of cases of Cholera were reported, and a total of over 10,000 deaths were recorded. Before this outbreak, Cholera spread in the Middle East, Europe, and Africa between the time of 1899-1923. The outcome of this epidemic was devastating, leaving about 800,000 dead. Case Analysis 1. This case is about a major issue blood donors may face: the possibility that they might be infected with a virus that will be transferred from them to the person receiving their transfusion.
strain 2. What do I Know? What do I Need to Know? What do you need to do in order to be eligible for blood donation?
How do they test for virus particles in the blood?
Why does the strain differ with each region?
How would they handle a situation where a virus was apparent in a lot of the donated blood? There can be different strains of viruses
We have the means to stop an outbreak before it happens 4. A biology textbook would help explain why viruses adapt different strains depending on where they are in the world. The WHO organization website would be able to tell me how they test for virus particles, as well as the circumstances in order to donate blood. Core Investigations I. Transmission of the WNV 1. The alligators may have eaten animals that had been infected with WNV.
2. I would add them to the 'incidental hosts'.
3. If a donor's blood was infected with WNV, the patients receiving the blood would also become infected with the disease, and since the symptoms of WNV are rarely visible those people could transfer to others and so on and so forth. II. Critical Reading 1. Similar: Number 5, Uganda, 1951+
Reason: It is the closest region to to Egypt and it's possible to have been sampled only a few years after 1951
Dissimilar: Number 2, France, 1965
Reason: It is the only sample outside of Africa and was found 10+ years after the first sample in Egypt
2. a) Sequence 3 is a deletion, which is a frameshift mutation.
b) 29 mutations
c) Sequence 3: 24%
Sequence 4: 2%
Sequence 5: 22%
Sequence 8: 18%
Sequence 3 shows the most mutations and has the greatest difference in nucleotides.
d) Sequence 2: No changes
Sequence 3: Asn changed to Lys
Sequence 4: Ser changed to Pro
Sequence 5: Asn changed to Ser and Thr changed to Ala
Sequence 6: No changes
The information reveals that the third base wobble allows the Amino Acids to stay the same, even if a nucleotide is changed. RNA Virus Positive Stranded RNA Virion RNA (Bacteria that doesn't code for proteins) functions the same as mRNA, which allows for immediate transformation upon infection of host cell Negative Stranded RNA Virion RNA must be copied into Positive Stranded RNA to create proteins. RNA Polymerase for mRNA is packaged in Virion to infect host cell upon Double Stranded RNA Due to being double stranded, mRNA can notbe a double function of the virus. RNA Polymerase must be stored in Virion Virus basics Made up of genetic material
Protein coat known as "capsid"
not considered to be alive Prokaryotic Viruses Known as "phages"
Virulent phages undergo the lytic cycle for reproduction
Temperate phages undergo the lysogenic cycle in means of reproduction
Phages are used to treat bacterial diseases
Phages are specific to bacteria Eukaryotic Viruses More diverse than prokaryotic viruses
DNA or RNA genomes
can be single or double stranded
Lipid layer around capsid Examples:
-RNA Virus: Influenza in humans, able to mutate rapidly and travel by air
-HIV; virus can code for reverse transcriptase (Allows for splicing into DNA of host cell),
-Opportunistic infections occurs when the virus destroys immune system cells Viroids : causes disease in plants due to RNA molecules Prions : protein molecules that cause disease, no genetic material In The Hot Zone, the pandemic of Ebola impacted only those living in Africa, who were exposed to it. The pandemic Smallpox impacted many people over the world. Both Smallpox and Ebola started in Africa. The earliest known record of Smallpox was found after an elephant war, when Ethiopian troops contracted a disease and brought it back with them. Ebola's cause is unknown so far. There were two different types of Smallpox. So far, there are three strands of Ebola. Both Smallpox and Ebola can be introduced to the immune system through the mouth and other bodily cavities. Fear and Death Preston is able to use his descriptive language to portray Fear and death in every part of "The Hot Zone." Part one of the book illustrates the symptoms of Ebola and Marburg to be massive hemorrhaging from every orifice, rashes, blood shot eyes, lethargy and the vomiting of blood infused with the virus itself. Depending on the variation of the viruses, the fatality rate ranges from around 5 out of 10, to 9 out of 10 deaths. He goes on in the later parts to describe extreme safety precautions with every incident concerning the virus, as well as implanting in the reader's mind that an outbreak could have occurred multiples times; but the world was saved, miraculously, every time. Europe was heavily affected by Smallpox, Typhus and Cholera. These pandemics were responsible for a hugely devastating amount of deaths. They all spread quickly over large populations, and were easily transmitted. "A hot virus from the rain forest lives within a twenty-four-hour plane flight from every city on earth. All of the earth's cities are connected by a web of airline routes. The web is a network. Once a virus hits the net, it can shoot anywhere in a day - Paris, Tokyo, New York, Los Angeles, wherever the planes fly." (pg. 13) 2. f) 28 point mutations were found
g) 0 Nonsense and 25 silent
h) The amino acid will change if the point mutation occurs on the first base.
i) No, because if it was a frameshift mutation then more Amino Acids would have changed, and not many of them did.
j) Our predictions were completely off. III. West Nile Virus: Virus Structure and Lifestyle 1. WNV Classification: Flavavirus. Ex. Yellow Fever
HIV Classification: Petrovirus. Ex. Certain types of cancer
4. HIV uses reverse transcription, taking ssRNA and turning it into DsDNA. The viral DNA then integrates itself into the host chromosome.
5. The immune system is not able to get rid of HIV because the virus replicates too quickly. IV. Testing Blood Donations for WNV 1. Primers are necessary to amplify
target DNA in order to make them detectable.
2. Sequence B would be targeted by the WNV
3. Primers match up to the two ends of specific DNA sequences that they are targeting
4. Most likely, he got it from a mosquito. It is unlikely that he will pass the virus on because he is only an incidental host, and the virus will be erased from his system quickly. Although most parents agree that vaccines are
necessary to protect their children, some of those
same parents have concerns about the adverse
affects. A few of these include:
- Development Delay
- Multiple Sclerosis
- ADD Smallpox Symptoms of Smallpox Impact on Society Fever, headache, severe back pain, diarrhea and vomiting. Soon you develope flat, red spots that later turn into small blisters that start at your face and spread down to your lower body. After scabs form, they fall off and leave deep scars. Smallpox most likely emerged in humans around 10,000 BC. During the 18th century, it killed around 400,000 Europeans a year. In the 20th century, smallpox was estimated to have killed 300-500 million people. After going through successful vaccination work through the 19th and 20th centuries, Smallpox was certifiably “eradicated” by the World Health Organization. Smallpox is the only infectious disease in humans that has been completely eliminated. Multiple events may occur that can cause genetic variation into a viral population, one of which is mutations from replication errors. If a mutation of the virus occurs, the genetic sequence will change causing the possibility of a new protein to be synthesized. By doing so, the virus may change in the ability to infect specific host cells. Another type of mutation is causing the host cells immune system to slow down or not function properly. In this case, the viral population will increase dramatically due to the lack of antibodies for the virus within the cell Genetic variation into a host may occur during the lysogenic cycle of the virus. During this cycle, the virus will insert its' DNA into the genome's DNA, causing the sequence to be altered. In this process, DNA sequences may fail to activate and will lead to variation. Genetic material may also be transferred from host cell to host cell when viruses transform from the lysogenic to lytic cycle. In this case, the host genome's DNA may be carried along with the virus's DNA into a new cell, causing more genetic variation. Chart showing recent Cholera outbreak in Haiti (2010)