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Golden Rice

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Jessica Wu

on 3 October 2016

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Transcript of Golden Rice

psy
gene plasmids of 7 different species
Godel Rice
Golden Rice


Ivee Kang & Jessica Wu
Source
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_A_deficiency#mediaviewer/File:Vitamin_A_deficiency.PNG
Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency
Vitamin A Deficiency
(VAD)
Source:
http://www.hdwallpapers.org/walls/cute-success-kid-wide.jpg
- leading cause of
preventable
blindness &
unnecessary
death

- common in
poor & developing
places:
-
Africa & South-East Asia

So how can we help?
Symptoms of VAD
Source
: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-xdxuxFx3024/T2nAjOIEPgI/AAAAAAAAHlI/lwxlA3F_6ic/s320/Boy+with+VAD+blindness.jpg
Source
: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/P360_Onderdendam_goed_nachtzicht_ns_nachtblind.jpg
Source
: http://www.opposingviews.com/sites/default/files/featured_image/measles.jpg
Source:
http://img.rt.com/files/episode/20/b8/f0/00/golden-rice.si.jpg
Introducing Golden Rice!
Rice (
Oryza sativa
) is a major staple food

Lacks vitamin A

Recombinant DNA technology to improve nutritional value
What are they doing now?

Enable provitamin A biosynthesis
Short-term treatments:
Breast feeding - natural source of vitamin A

Periodic high dose of vitamin A supplements

Long-term treatments:
IN NEED!
What is Vitamin A?
Carotene
Technique:
The Result:
Controversy
'Golden Rice 2'
Engineered in 2000 by Beyer
et al
.
Source: http://thenewsdoctors.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Vitamin-d.jpg
Growth & Development
Immune System Maintenance
Good vision
Source
: http://img4.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20130518182031/napoleansbuttonsdyes/images/6/67/Beta-carotene.jpg
two connected retinyl groups
Source
: http://www.vision-training.com/en/eNewsletter/Australia/Winter%2008/Assets/Vitamin%20A%20structure.JPG
Retinyl Group

psy
from corn significantly increased carotene accumulation in rice

total 31 ug/g beta-carotene
Organic pigment

In chloroplasts and chromoplast as well as some fungi and bacteria

Essential part of rhodopsin

Cannot be manufactured in species of the animal kingdom
Pathway of Beta-carotene
1.6 ug/g total carotenoid produced
Source
: http://www.nature.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/nbt/journal/v23/n4/fig_tab/nbt1082_F1.html
Paine
et al
. hypothesize
psy
gene as the limitation (2005)

They test
psy
genes from multiple species

So what can be done?
Source
: http://www.nature.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/nbt/journal/v23/n4/fig_tab/nbt1082_F2.html
Doesn't address malnutrition problems..
quantity to have benefits exceeds reasonable daily consumption
need fat in diet
Reduce biodiversity of local crops
replaces native diversity
monoculture
Economic dependency
agricultural dependence on Agri-business who develops technology

Source:
http://jn.nutrition.org/content/132/3/506S.short
beta-carotene in Golden Rice is as good as pure beta-carotene in oil & beats those in spinach

a serving of 100 to 150g cooked rice = ~60% of daily recommended intake for 6-8-year-old children (400ug)





Source: http://2010.igem.org/wiki/images/d/d0/Agro_theory.png
Source:http://static.comicvine.com/uploads/original/11111/111114407/3460820-5970322726-Chall.jpg
References:
Beyer, P., Al-Babili, S., Ye, X., Lucca, P., Schaub, P., Welsch, R., & Potrykus, I. (2002). Golden rice: Introducing the β-carotene biosynthesis pathway into rice endosperm by genetic engineering to defeat vitamin A deficiency.
The Journal of nutrition, 132
(3), 506S-510S.

Black, R. E., Allen, L. H., Bhutta, Z. A., Caulfield, L. E., De Onis, M., Ezzati, M., Mathers, C., & Rivera, J. (2008). Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences.
The lancet, 371
(9608), 243-260.

Bouis, H. E. (2002). Plant breeding: a new tool for fighting micronutrient malnutrition.
The Journal of nutrition, 132
(3), 491S-494S.

Conway, G., & Toenniessen, G. (1999). Feeding the world in the twenty-first century.
Nature, 402
, C55-C58.

Paine, J. A., Shipton, C. A., Chaggar, S., Howells, R. M., Kennedy, M. J., Vernon, G., Wright, S. Y., Hinchliffe, E., Adams, J. L., Silverstone, A. L., & Drake, R. (2005). Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content.
Nature biotechnology, 23
(4), 482-487.

Potrykus, I. (2001). Golden rice and beyond.
Plant Physiology, 125
(3), 1157-1161.

Ye, X., Al-Babili, S., Klöti, A., Zhang, J., Lucca, P., Beyer, P., & Potrykus, I. (2000). Engineering the provitamin A (B-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm.
Science, 287
(5451), 303-305.

Golden Rice 2 meets demands!
Researcher Dr. Peter Beyer funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to further improve golden rice

Stack multiple micronutrient and bioavailability traits

Improve protein quality and content

Introduce novel traits from transgenic lines into regional rice cultivars

Field trials are occurring in China and Philippines
What is happening now?
Questions?
Source
: http://puzzles-gallery.com/data/media/2/jackie-chan.jpg
Outline
Why it this important?
What is it?
How it is made?
Controversy
The Rebuttal
Thank You!

Source: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/132/3/506S.short
The Rebuttal
Full transcript