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Transcript of Golden Rice
gene plasmids of 7 different species
Ivee Kang & Jessica Wu
Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency
Vitamin A Deficiency
- leading cause of
- common in
poor & developing
Africa & South-East Asia
So how can we help?
Symptoms of VAD
Introducing Golden Rice!
) is a major staple food
Lacks vitamin A
Recombinant DNA technology to improve nutritional value
What are they doing now?
Enable provitamin A biosynthesis
Breast feeding - natural source of vitamin A
Periodic high dose of vitamin A supplements
What is Vitamin A?
'Golden Rice 2'
Engineered in 2000 by Beyer
Growth & Development
Immune System Maintenance
two connected retinyl groups
from corn significantly increased carotene accumulation in rice
total 31 ug/g beta-carotene
In chloroplasts and chromoplast as well as some fungi and bacteria
Essential part of rhodopsin
Cannot be manufactured in species of the animal kingdom
Pathway of Beta-carotene
1.6 ug/g total carotenoid produced
gene as the limitation (2005)
genes from multiple species
So what can be done?
Doesn't address malnutrition problems..
quantity to have benefits exceeds reasonable daily consumption
need fat in diet
Reduce biodiversity of local crops
replaces native diversity
agricultural dependence on Agri-business who develops technology
beta-carotene in Golden Rice is as good as pure beta-carotene in oil & beats those in spinach
a serving of 100 to 150g cooked rice = ~60% of daily recommended intake for 6-8-year-old children (400ug)
Beyer, P., Al-Babili, S., Ye, X., Lucca, P., Schaub, P., Welsch, R., & Potrykus, I. (2002). Golden rice: Introducing the β-carotene biosynthesis pathway into rice endosperm by genetic engineering to defeat vitamin A deficiency.
The Journal of nutrition, 132
Black, R. E., Allen, L. H., Bhutta, Z. A., Caulfield, L. E., De Onis, M., Ezzati, M., Mathers, C., & Rivera, J. (2008). Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences.
The lancet, 371
Bouis, H. E. (2002). Plant breeding: a new tool for fighting micronutrient malnutrition.
The Journal of nutrition, 132
Conway, G., & Toenniessen, G. (1999). Feeding the world in the twenty-first century.
Paine, J. A., Shipton, C. A., Chaggar, S., Howells, R. M., Kennedy, M. J., Vernon, G., Wright, S. Y., Hinchliffe, E., Adams, J. L., Silverstone, A. L., & Drake, R. (2005). Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content.
Nature biotechnology, 23
Potrykus, I. (2001). Golden rice and beyond.
Plant Physiology, 125
Ye, X., Al-Babili, S., Klöti, A., Zhang, J., Lucca, P., Beyer, P., & Potrykus, I. (2000). Engineering the provitamin A (B-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm.
Golden Rice 2 meets demands!
Researcher Dr. Peter Beyer funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to further improve golden rice
Stack multiple micronutrient and bioavailability traits
Improve protein quality and content
Introduce novel traits from transgenic lines into regional rice cultivars
Field trials are occurring in China and Philippines
What is happening now?
Why it this important?
What is it?
How it is made?