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Introduction to Bible

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on 15 December 2013

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Transcript of Introduction to Bible

Creation
Covenant
Genesis 12-50
Slavery/Exodus/Law
Exodus and Leviticus
Introduction to Bible
Conquest
Judges
United Monarchy
Exile/Restoration
Overarching Theme:
Covenant

Divided Monarchy
Christ
Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
Church
Themes of the Church include Holy Spirit, persecution and the Body of Christ.
Consummation
Revelation
Application
From what I have learned in this class and in my own personal devotions I have learned so much and realized how important it is to apply scripture to my life. Scripture has taught me to love and accept everyone whether I get along with them or not (Matt. 22:39). This lesson has been very applicable to my life in college and will continue for the rest of my life because there will always be somebody who I don't along with. Scripture has also taught me not to be anxious because God is in control (1 Peter 5:7). From the different biblical characters I can see what great character looks like and what poor character looks like. I can learn from their mistakes as well as learn from good decisions. I strive to be more like Stephen, Peter and Paul and be bold and share the gospel because there is nothing to lose. I can learn from Jonah's mistake and listen and obey God the first time. The scripture gives you all the information you need to live a godly, Christ-centered life.
Application
For the theme of the covenant I know that God loves me unconditionally and that if I believe in him and follow his laws I can spend my life eternally with him. I am always in constant awe of how amazing this covenant is. When I think of the guilt I feel when I do one thing wrong and then think that when Jesus was on the cross he had that feeling for every sin that every person ever had past, present and future I realize how significant the covenant is. When I was baptized I read Galatians 2:20 out loud and it means so much to me because it reminds me that "I have been crucified with Christ" and that "Christ lives in me" and that "I live by the faith in the Son of God who loved me and gave himself for me." Thinking in these terms affects how I act, my relationships and how I spend my time. God has given me an amazing opportunity to witness to other people and remembering what God has done for me reminds me to be diligent in all aspects of my life. Its the difference between staying in my room and watching TV or interacting with people and spending time building relationships with people who will help me grow spiritually. This new ultimate covenant trumps all of the other covenants because it is everlasting and is offered to every person.
Application
It is important to know the broad arc of the biblical stories from Genesis to Revelation because you need to see that God finishes what he starts. If you only read Genesis you wouldn't know that Jesus sacrifices himself for us so that we may have a real relationship with God. If you only read up to Leviticus you wouldn't know that you don't have to sacrifice animals for your sins because Jesus took care of that. If you don't read Revelation then you don't know what is going to happen when the world ends and that Jesus will be returning to take his followers up to heaven with him. I have been reading the whole bible this year and I am almost finished and it has been really unique to see the connections between the Old Testament and the New Testament and seeing how God keeps his promises. There are some stories or points in the bible that you can only understand if you look at in context. The bible is a book and in just like any other book you must read the whole book to see what it has to offer for your life.
Works Cited
"Covenant." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 10 Dec.
2013.http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Covenant?s=t.

Dorsey, David A. The Literary Structure of the Old Testament: A
Commentary on Genesis-Malachi. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1999. Print.

Drane, John William., John William. Drane, and John William.
Drane. Introducing the Bible. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2012. Print.

Fee, Gordon D., and Douglas K. Stuart. How to Read the Bible for
All Its worth. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003. Print.

Gane, Roy. The NIV Application Commentary--Leviticus,
Numbers. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan House, 2004. Print.

Holy Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2011. Print.

Keener, Craig S. Revelation: From Biblical Text ... to
Contemporary Life. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000. Print.

The location of the creation took place in the Garden of Eden.
Over a period of 7 days God created the earth, darkness and light, plants, animals, humans and much more.
The first man created was Adam and then God created Eve from one of Adam's ribs. (Genesis 2:21-22)
Satan came to earth disguised as a serpent and tricked Eve into eating an apple from the tree of good and evil. This was the first sin and as punishment Adam and Eve were forced to leave the garden.
Many years later the entire earth was corrupt and God planned to wipe out everybody except Noah and his family because Noah was faithful. He instructed Noah to build an ark and gather up two of every animal to stay on the ark during the storm. For 40 days and nights it rained and Noah and his family were stuck on the ark but after 40 days as God promised, the rain stopped and the water eventually went away. God placed a rainbow in the sky as a sign of his promise to never wipe out the earth again. (Genesis 6, 7, 8)
In Chapter 11 of Genesis the people decided to build a city so that would not be scattered around the earth apart from each other. When God saw what they were doing he realized that if they all spoke in one language then nothing would be impossible for them so he confused their language and scattered them over the whole earth so they stopped building the city.


Genesis 1-11
Creation
God created man in his own image and saw that it was good
Alienation
Adam and Eve ate the apple given to them by Satan in the form of a serpent and no longer had the close relationship with God

"The tragic role of Adam's sin is highlighted by its placement at the center, where it functions as the story's turning point" (Dorsey).
Redemption
God continued to have a relationship with Adam and Eve and forgave them of their sin. Even though there were changes in their relationship, God still loved them and continued to watch over them.
Cycle of the Creation
Themes of creation include God as creator, architect, intentional and relational
Adam:
he was the first human created by God and his job was to name all of the plants and animals on the earth. He was married to Eve and when she ate the apple she persuaded him to eat it too. Because of his sin, his punishment was that his work became hard and that he was aware of his sin and ashamed of his nakedness.
God asked Abram to "leave, trust & obey" and in return he would be rewarded with nations, land and blessings.
Abraham was successful because he was obedient, had faith in Gods plan and gave God all that God asked of him.
Because of Abraham's faithfulness God rewarded him with a son who he named Isaac. This was a miracle because both Abraham and Sarah were old and they hadn't been able to have children.
God tested Abraham by asking him to sacrifice his only son but at the last minute provided a ram as a substitute. (Genesis 22:1-19)
Isaac married Rebekah and had two sons named Jacob and Esau. Jacob was Rebekah's favorite and she helped him trick Isaac and Esau so he could receive the blessing and the birthright.
Jacob later married Rachel and they had several children including Joseph. Joseph was the favored son and he was disliked by his brothers because he had dreams about them bowing down to him and their father Jacob gave Joseph the "coat of many colors."
Joseph's brothers sold him to traveler's on their way to Egypt and told their father that he had been killed. Joseph ended up in prison where he was able to interpret Pharaoh's dreams and warn him that a famine would be coming in seven years. Because he interpreted this dream Pharaoh put Joseph as second in command. (Genesis 41:41-45)
During the famine Joseph's brothers came to Egypt to find food and did not recognize Joseph. Once Joseph told them who he was they were afraid until they realized that Joseph had forgiven them and they were all reunited.
Themes include slavery, suffering , salvation, provision, direction, worship and law.
The beginning location of slavery, exodus and law took place in Egypt.
Moses, a Hebrew, was born during the time when Pharaoh was killing all the Hebrew baby boys. His mother put him in a basket and sent him down the Nile River where he was found by Pharaohs daughter and was eventually raised in Pharaohs household.
As an adult, Moses saw the suffering of his people and killed an Egyptian who was hurting an Israelite. He fled to Midian where he married and became a shepherd.
One day God spoke to Moses (Exodus 3:1-8) and told him to return to Egypt and free the Israelite's.
When Moses returned to Egypt Pharaoh refused but then God sent plagues on the Egyptians.
Because Pharaoh's heart was still hardened, God told Moses and Aaron that he was going to kill the first born son in every Egyptian household. They were instructed to borrow silver and gold jewelry from their neighbors and the Lord would go to each house to kill the first born son but he would pass over the house if there was lambs blood on the door frame. After this last plague Pharaoh let the Israelite's leave.
God led the Israelites through the Red Sea and allowed Pharaoh's army to be destroyed.
God also tested the people with food and water so they learned to rely on God. (Exodus 16)
God offered the Israelite's a covenant based on God's deliverence that was conditioned on their obedience which was going to give the people an identity and role in the world.
The Role of the Priest
From the tribe of Levi
The priests were responsible for Spiritual Leadership and were an instrument of divine blessing to the Israelite's. "So God himself gives his priests the words to 'bless' his people, that is, to put his name on them by invoking him as their deity so that he will bless them" (Gane).
They offered sacrifices and offerings on behalf of the people
Aaron:
Moses' brother who helped him free the Israelite's from slavery. He was a prophet and he became the first High Priest of Israel. He was not allowed to enter Canaan with the others. He built the golden calf as an idol for the Israelite's while Moses was on Mt. Sinai talking to God.
Themes of the Covenant include promises, generations and blessed to be a blessing.
Sarah:
Abram's wife who was 70 at the time of the blessing. She was taken into Pharaoh's palace until they found out that she was Abram's wife. When the three visitors came she laughed when they said that she would have a baby but she gave birth to Isaac and it was a miracle because of her age.
Patriarchs
Abraham
Isaac
Jacob
Themes of conquest include sin, sorrow, suffering, salvation, victory and inheritance.
Rahab: When Joshua sent spies to see the new land, the King tried to kill them so Rahab, who lived in the new land hid the spies in her house. As payment she asked that her family would be spared when the Israelites took over. As a sign she tied a scarlet cord in her window so that the Israelite's would not destroy her house. This was an example of an outsider being brought in.
Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua
Continuous cycle of...
Sin
Sorrow
Suffering
Salvation
As the Israelite's were traveling through the wilderness they became tired of God's provision and jealous of the leaders.
When they were at Kadesh Barnea, Moses sent out 12 spies to learn more about the promised land but when they came back they said that the people who lived there were too powerful and that the was too large and strong. Only 2 spies, Caleb and Joshua, said that they should go to the new land because that is where God promised they would go. The other 10 spies were killed for their lack of faith.
Even so, because the Israelite's heard these scary things about the new land they started to rebel against Moses and Aaron. (Numbers 14:1-4) As punishment God said that nobody who had seen his miracles in Egypt would be able to go to the promised land so the Israelite's wandered in the desert for 40 years until only the New Generation was left.
In the meantime, Moses received the 10 commandments from God on Mt. Sinai, the Israelite's built the golden calf and were punished by God and much more.
As the 40 years were coming to an end Moses made a mistake and tapped the rock for water instead of just speaking to it. Because of this mistake, Moses and Aaron were not allowed to enter the promised land and Joshua was chosen to take over. In Moses' farewell speech he reminded the Israelites to obey God and not to fear because God will fulfill his promises. He also warned them against temptation to follow other gods and Idolatry.
Joshua's main role was to obey the book of the law and he would have success. Joshua sent out two spies to see the promised land and especially Jericho. (Joshua 2)
Then the Israelite's crossed the Jordan River with the priests leading with the ark of the covenant so the river parted. After everyone had passed through the river 12 stones were collected and placed in a circle to represent each tribe.
When the Israelite's reached Jericho they walked around the city for 7 days and on the last day the priests played their trumpets and the people shouted until the wall of the city collapsed.
Th Israelite's continued to conquer cities in the Promised Land with God's help and guidance. "The structure [of Joshua] helps reinforce the point that Israel was able to conquer Canaan only because of Yahweh's initiation, guidance, help and miraculous intervention" (Dorsey).
Book of Judges
The themes of Judges include sin, sorrow, suffering and salvation.
Cycle of life under Judges
Rebellion
Judges 4:1 "After Ehud died, the Israelites once again did evil in the eyes of the Lord."
Retribution
Judges 4:2 "So the Lord sold them into the hands of Jabin, a king of Canaan, who reigned in Hazor..."
Repentance
Judges 4:3 "Because he had nine hundred iron chariots and had cruelly oppressed the Israelite's for twenty years, they cried to the Lord for help."
Restoration
Judges 4:23-24 "On that day God subdued Jabin, the Canaanite king, before the Israelites. And the hand of the Israelites grew stronger and stronger against Jabin, the Canaanite king, until they destroyed him."
Covenant: the conditional promises made to humanity by God, as revealed in Scripture. Throughout the Old and Testament God made many covenants with the people.
1 Samuel- 1 Kings
Themes of the United Monarchy include leadership, obedience, discord, wisdom and decline
1 Kings-2 Chronicles
Themes of the Divided Monarchy include disunity, decline, kings, fear and despair.
2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah
Themes of the exile/restoration include repent, repair, rebuild and rededicate.
Acts-Revelation
Barak:
he was the son of Abinoam and he was told by the prophetess Deborah that the Lord was commanding him to lead 10,000 men to Mount Tabor to conquer Jabin's army. He helped kill Sisera's troops by sword. He did not however kill Sisera because he wouldn't fight without Deborah.
As the Israelites are in the Promised Land the younger generation starts to turn away from God. Instead of abandoning them, God selects Judges to temporarily rule over the people.
There is a continual cycle of the Israelites sinning and eventually being restored by God. "This highly repetitive pattern would have helped the ancient audience more easily follow the authors organization when moving from one story to the next" (Dorsey).
One of the biggest sins in Judges is the worship of the idol Baal.
The Philistines oppressed the Israelites so God sent an angel to a barren woman telling her that she would have a baby who would be Israel's delieverance and that his name would be Samson. (Judges 13)
Through many ups and downs, Samson is eventually able to kill the Philistine rulers by knocking the pillars of the temple on them also causing his own death. (Judges 16:23-31)
At the end of Judges when there is no ruler a Levite man was attacked by Benjamite men who raped and killed his concubine. In his rage he cut her into 12 pieces and sent a piece to each tribe to show how corrupt Israel was becoming. The other tribes were furious and helped kill off the tribe of Benjamin.
Samuel:
born out of barrenness to Hannah, he was presented to serve Eli the priest for life. All of Israel recognized Samuel as the Lord's prophet. He was a priest and judge as well. Samuel was very important in the process of choosing of the first two kings of the United Monarchy.
Because of the constant threat from the Philistine the Israelites asked for a king because they wanted someone to lead that was more physical than God. "As they emerged into national consciousness, the originally disparate Hebrew tribes needed a leader" (Drane).
So Samuel anointed Saul who was a strong, charismatic leader. But eventually Saul started to stray away from God and make his own decisions. He was unwilling to destroy the Amalekites completely and saved the good things even though God had told him to destroy everything so the Lord rejected him as King over Israel. (1 Samuel 15:10-11)
The Lord sent Samuel to Bethlehem to anoint David son of Jesse as the new king. David became one of Saul's armor bearers and Saul liked him at first but then the spirit of the Lord left Saul and he began to despise David.
David was hunted by Saul as an outlaw and fugitive and David was forced to hide out in enemy territory. David eventually ended up finding Saul and sparing his life twice. When David heard that Saul was dead he returned to Hebron as the Lord commanded and became King. (2 Samuel 2:1-2)
Davids accomplishments included defeating Israels enemies, making Jerusalem capital, building a mighty palace, bringing the ark of the covenant back to Jerusalem and the Davidic Covenant.
Davids failures included moral failure such as sexual sin with Bathsheba and the murder of Uriah and he did not discipline his sons.
When David died his son Solomon took over the throne. Solomon's accomplishments included his wisdom received from God, building the temple and creating military outposts. His failures were overtaxing and overextending his people and his loss of devotion to God.
After Solomon died the 10 Northern tribes broke off and formed a separate kingdom called Israel and the Southern Kingdom was called the Kingdom of Judah. Israel was larger but more evil. "The development of the monarchy, however, was a hotly contested issue, and though the royal family of David provided stability for a while it could never unite people with diverse tribal and clan loyalties" (Drane).
Theocracy Monarchy
Elijah:
was a prophet in the northern kingdom during the reign of Ahab. He defended the worship of Yahweh over Baal, raised the dead, brought fire down from the sky and was taken up to heaven in a whirlwind and chariot of horses of flame. (2 Kings 2:11)
Israel
Northern Kingdom
20 Kings
11 Families
200 years
Eventually conquered by the Assyrians
First king was Jeroboam
Prophets included Elijah, Amos and Hosea
Judah
Southern Kingdom
20 Kings
1 Family
350 years
Eventually conquered by Babylon
First king was Rehoboam
Prophets included Isaiah, Jeremiah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Ezekiel.
Factors leading to the Divided Kingdom
Solomon's oppressive dealings with the Northern tribes
The historical leaning of the nation toward tribal independence. "When the tribes in the north saw their chance to break free from bureaucratic state centred on Jerusalem, they lost no time in choosing to do so...the narratives reflect a deeply rooted desire to return to the old ways" (Drane).
The foolish policy of Rehoboam:
Jeroboam asked Rehoboam to lighten the load of Solomon's burden on the people but Rehoboam refused. Jeroboam left Judah and the tribes that followed him became the Northern Kingdom. (1 Kings 12:1-17)
Unwillingness to worship the Lord only
End of the Northern Kingdom:
It began with King Jehu paying tribute to the Assyrian king which showed their weakness. After Jeroboam II, there was a series of rapid succession of kings, assassinations and revolts and they are eventually captured by Assyria.
End of the Southern Kingdom:
God tried to warn the people through messengers but the people scoffed at the prophets and God became angry so he let Nebuchadnezzar take over Jerusalem and burn the temple and destroy everything of value and the Israelites were taken to Babylon.
Causes:
The Israelites refused to keep the laws of God and promoted idolatry (II Chronicles 36:14)
They also refused to listen to Gods warnings and prophets
They refused to give the land its Sabbath rest
Results of the Exile:
Idolatry was weeded out of the Israelites lifestyle
The Synagogue was built after the temple was destroyed and was used as a local worship center
The Torah took on a new significance
They became united (Nehemiah 10:28-29)
The Return from Exile
1st wave: The first return was focused on establishing the temple so they could worship and sacrifice. Their second focus was on rebuilding the altar. Both Haggai and Zechariah were called to remind the people to keep working and King Darius provided them with what they needed.
2nd Wave: Ezra was concerned with making sure that the laws of Moses were being taught and observed. He also dealt with the intermarriage situation.
3rd Wave: After the construction of the temple the Israelites focused on the building of the wall of the city. Nehemiah was the leader on this project and they rebuilt the wall in 52 days!
Nehemiah:
Son of Hacaliah, Nehemiah heard about the destroyed wall of Jerusalem and asked the king if he could go help rebuild it. So the king sent him to Jerusalem and he was responsible for Israel's sins and prayed to God for renewal of faith. "The King's granting Nehemiah permission to return [was] the story's turning point" (Dorsey). With strength from the Lord they were able to build the walls in 52 days.
New Identity in an Old Land
Themes of Christ include temptation, teachings, salvation and fulfillment.
Mary:
Jesus' mother played a huge role in this theme. Because of her faith and trust in God she risked persecution and death in order to give birth to a son out of wedlock. She obeyed and named him Jesus and helped raise him to be the salvation for all humanity.
Jesus was born humbly in a stable in Bethlehem (the home of David) to his mother Mary. He was conceived by the holy spirit. (Luke 2:1-7)
He started his ministry at the age of 30. He was baptized by John the Baptist and then was led by the spirit to the desert where he was tempted by Satan three times.
Through his teachings and use of parables he fulfilled many of the Old Testament prophecies. "When asked about the purpose of parables, [Jesus] said they contained mysteries...and gave license to the hardening theory and endless allegorical interpretations" (Fee).
He performed over 30 miracles including healing of the sick, raising the dead and feeding thousands of people.
At the age of 33 he was betrayed by Judas (one of his disciples) and put on trial for blasphemy. He was crucified on a cross (Matthew 27:45-56) and placed in a tomb.
On the third day (Sunday) he was raised from the dead. Mary and other women had gone to the tomb to finish wrapping and preserving his body and they saw that he wasn't there. He appeared to them and the disciples multiple times before ascending to heaven to be with God.
By his death all of humanity was saved from sin because his death was the punishment for our sin.
Fully human-Fully divine
New Covenant
John 3:16
Acts starts with the Jesus' ascension up to heaven and the Holy Spirit coming to dwell in everyone (both Jews & Gentiles)
The Holy Spirit came at Pentecost and there was violent wind in the whole house and tongues of fire separated the people and settled at each one. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages but everybody could understand each other. (Acts 2:1-13)
Peter went all around preaching and performing miracles. In Acts Peter had a great realization where God told him that he should not call anything profane or unclean that God says is clean. He is then invited to eat with the Roman Centurion Cornelius and Peter realizes that Peter can witness to him even though he is a gentile because he is "God fearing." After this he church welcomes Gentiles and Peter realizes that he can witness to anyone who wants to know God.
Saul (the man in charge of Stephens death) was persecuting Christians everywhere as a Pharisee. On the road to Damascus a light from heaven flashed around him and a voice cried out to him saying "Saul, Saul why do you persecute me?" (Acts 9:2) Saul realized that it was God and he cried out to him. God replied by telling him to stop persecuting his people and to go the city and wait for more instruction. When Saul stood up he realized that he had been blinded so the men traveling with him helped him to the city. Then God spoke to Ananias and told him to go to Saul (Who changed his name to Paul) and restore his sight. Ananias obeyed and Paul was filled with the Holy Spirit.
Paul began traveling and preaching about God. He preached that Jesus was Lord, the church is the body of Christ and the gospel can be given to all.
Paul wrote many letters to the Churches in the area encouraging them and keeping them accountable by pointing out areas where they were struggling. In his letters he talked about how everyone was spiritually deprived but the answer was through Jesus Christ and how faith can be used in practical ways. "Paul is one of the most prominent of the New Testament writes, and his writings are deeply influenced by his own cultural and religious backgrounds as well as his subsequent spiritual experience" (Drane).
Stephen:
"a man full of God's grace and power" who preached the word of God but was blamed for blasphemy by jealous leaders. He was seized and stoned for his preaching and beliefs. He was considered the first martyr for Christianity. His death caused an outbreak of persecution against the church.
Characteristics of the First Church
Devoted to the apostles teachings
New heart for worship
Unified
Bold in sharing
No one was in need because they shared everything
Filled with the Holy Spirit
In Genesis 9 God made a covenant with Noah promising that "never again will all life be cut off by the waters of a flood" (v 11). As a sign of his covenant, God put a rainbow in the sky. "This is the sign of the covenant I have established between me and all life on earth" (v 17).
In Genesis 15 God made a covenant with Abraham saying "To your descendants I give this land" (v 18). God promised that Abraham would have offspring more numerous than the stars in the sky and even though they will suffer for a time they will come out with great possession and Abraham will die peacefully of old age. (v 12-16)
In 2 Samuel 7:1-17 God makes a promise to David. In his covenant God promised David a great name, a place where the Israelites could dwell and rest from enemies. This covenant was unconditional because God promised his love would not depart from David like it did from Saul.
The New Covenant!
The ultimate covenant that God made with humanity took place in the New Testament when he sent Jesus to earth.
John 3:16 "For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life."
In this covenant, Jesus took care of all of our sins by dying on the cross and being the ultimate sacrifice.
Our role as humanity is to believe and have faith and in return God will give us eternal life in heaven.
Consummation: the end of time
"The focus also shifts from the entire human race to a single individual and from the entire earth Canaan" (Dorsey).
"The audience hears how godly Jews dared to leave their comfortable homes...to return to Judah and how, despite hardship and opposition, God was with them, blessing their efforts and their lives, and answering their prayers" (Dorsey).
The book of Revelation was written by John who received the revelation from an angel of God and begins with the warning that the end of time is coming soon. (Revelation 1:9-11)
In this book John gives an individual message to each of the "seven churches in the province of Asia." He talks about their strengths and weaknesses and tries to encourage them to make things right.
In many of his visions he sees unnatural creatures such as six winged angels and red dragons with seven heads which makes the end of time more mysterious and overwhelming. These creatures were symbols of people throughout the bible such as Satan. (Revelation 12:7-17)
"John confirms once again that all history is in God's hands--the future as well as te present;thus, his people need not fear as if something will happen to them apart from God's plan" (Keener).
John:
As the writer of this book John plays a significant role because he is receiving all of the information from the Holy Spirit through dream and visions. The book is based on how John was able to interpret the visions and dreams and is written as letter from him to humanity warning that the end is nearing.
Themes of the consummation include the return, God's sovereignty, judgment and hope.
Revelation reminds humanity that the day of Judgment is at hand and that you either go to heaven or to hell.
In Exodus 34 God makes a covenant with Moses and the Israelites promising to "awesome work" (v 10) and to bless them as long as they followed the laws that he had given to them.
"A notable articulation of this hope is to be found in the expectation that there would need to be a 'new covenant' which would incorporate and bring to fruition all the unfulfilled promises of the original Sinai covenant, and at the same time herald the beginning of a new era of relationships between God and humanity" (Drane).
Only the people from the Southern Kingdom who were captured by the Babylonians were able to return to the Promised Land. The Northern Kingdom people were spread out throughout the lands.
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