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The Age of Exploration

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Brian Roberts

on 14 December 2015

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Transcript of The Age of Exploration

The Age of Exploration
European Expansion
because of new economic heights through their worldwide trading activity
Why take these dangerous voyages?
attracted to Asia
stories of Marco Polo visiting Mongol leader Khan
- wrote book called The Travels
looking to gain access by sea (instead of land)
reasonings
1. spices (flavor/preserve flavor)
> silk road - middle man
2. find precious metals
3. religious zeal
> Cortes (conqueror of Mexico)
"introduced into the holy Catholic faith"
"God - Gold - Glory"
belief they could spread Christianity to the natives
God would reward them for it
increase power of Church
risking drowning, starvation, disease, and murder
GLORY found in adventure of claiming new land
making them rich instead of poor sailors
Rumors of gold - amounts beyond their wildest dreams - made men believe they could get rich quickly
Example:
Coronado (1542) reported finding
CIBOLA "city of gold"
EARLY MYTHS
sea serpents
oceans near equator boiled
sailors blood would boil
skin would turn black from sun's heat
Earth was flat
NEW TECHNOLOGIES
caravel ship
- invented by Portuguese
- triangular sails against the wind
- large cargo hold
cartography
- art/science of map making
- accurate maps
astrolabe
- Greek astronomers
- plot latitude using sun/stars
magnetic compass
- invented by Chinese
- helped chart courses
Portuguese Explorers
took the lead in European exploration
Henry the Navigator
-began exploring western/southern Africa
- southern coast known as Gold Coast
Vasco da Gama
- rounded Cape of Good Hope
- sailed directly to coast of India
- loaded spices (made a profit of several thousand %)
naval power
- heavily armed fleets
- successful on land and water
Spanish Explorers
knowledge/ideas
- world was round
- didn't understand circumference
- size of Asian continent
- another continent lay between Europe/Asia
Christopher Columbus
- searching for route to Asia
- persuaded Ferdinand/Isabella to sponsor
- 1492 reached Americas
- final voyage reached West Indies
Treaty of
Tordesillas
PORTUGAL
SPAIN
New lands to Explore
John Cabot Amerigo Vespucci
explored New England coast
helped lay groundwork for English
claim of Canada
sent letters of new land found
named America (after Amerigo)
conquistadors
Spanish conquerors of the Americas whose use of firearms, organizational skills, and determination
brought incredible success.
aztec
ruled much of central mexico
Cortes landed in 1519 and marched on
Tenochtitlan (major Aztec city)
- made alliances (Tlaxcala)
Montezuma welcomed Cortes
Aztec were surprised by the Spanish
- horseback, firearms, cannons, & steel swords
Spanish took Montezuma hostage in 1520 but Aztecs drove out the Spanish
Aztecs then experienced the "Great Sickness"
- no natural immunity for European diseases
Cortes got fresh soldiers and 50,000 from Tlaxcala
City was forced to surrender
RESULT
Cortes leveled the pyramids, temples, and palaces.
Rivers were filled in and the city of Tenochtitlan was no more.
INCA
Pizarro arrives in 1530
180 v. 200,000
- brought steel weapons, gunpower, & horses
incas experience epidemic of smallpox
Spanish captured Cuzco [capital]
Results of Line of Demarcation
SPANISH - mexico, central amer, south amer
PORTUGUESE - brazil
Queen Isabella
declared the NA be called "indians"
Encomienda
right of landowners to use NA as laborers
supposed to protect the rights of NA
put to work on sugar plantations/gold mines
few worried about protecting workers
RESULT of forced labor/starvation/disease
HISPANIOLA- 1500 = 250,000 NA
1538 = 500 NA

MEXICO - 1500 = 25 million
1630 = 1 million
Columbian Exchange
exchange of plants and animals between Europe and the Americas that transformed the economic activity of both worlds
Old World New World
* alpaca
* guinea pig
* llama
* turkey
* bee
* cat
* camel
* chicken
* cow
* goat
* goose
* honey bees
* horse
* rabbit (domestic)
* pig
* rock pigeon
* sheep
* silkworm
* water buffalo
FOOD
ANIMALS
DISEASES
chicken pox
measles
smallpox
malaria
flu
common cold
Atlantic Slave Trade
How did European exploration
change the world?
1. Americas & Spice Islands
destruction of local civilizations
establishment of European colonies
2. Africa
strong impact on local societies
regional trading patterns
increase in slave trade
commercial captialism =
1st step in world economy
ECONOMY OF THE 17TH CENTURY
1) Establishment of [COLONIES]
settlement of people living in a new territory
linked together w/parent country by trade & govt. control
The Slave Trade
Primary market in early 1400's was in Southwest Asia.
However, this changed in the 1490's (sugarcane plantations).
Grown on PLANTATIONS
established in the 1500's
along the coast of Brazil
requires high demand of labor
dwindling NA population
Europeans turned to enslaved Africans
In 1518 the first Spanish
ship carried enslaved Africans to the Americas.
(TRIANGULAR TRADE)
europe
africa
americas
manufactured goods
guns/cloth
traded for slaves
shipped to americas
and sold as slaves
merchants bought
tobacco
molasses
sugar
raw cotton
shipped back to europe
Slaves Exported
1500's - 275,000 slaves
1600's - 1 million slaves
1700's - 6 million slaves
overall b/t the 1500 - 1800's an estimated
10 million slaves were brought to the Americas
became known as


death rate higher for newer slaves
new generation had partial immunity
encouraged to have children
THE MIDDLE PASSAGE
King Alfonso
King of the Congo
Most persons enslaved in Africa at the beginning were prisoners of war
Traded gold, guns, and
other goods in coastal regions
demand grew and they had to move further inland for slaves
"so great is corruption that our
country is being completely depopulated"
effects of the slave trade
1) depopulation
2) lose of youngest/strongest men
3) increase in warfare
4) acquiring guns increase local power
5) lose of tribal identity
Colonial Latin America
Social Classes
Peninsulares
Creoles
multiracial groups
NA/African Slaves
Spanish/Port officals who were born in Europe
held important government offices
decendants of Europeans born in LA
controlled land and businesses
reguarded as second class citizens
Spanish/Port. who moved into LA and lived with slave labor
Spanish rulers permitted intermarriage between Europeans and NA and offspring was known as
Over time became the superior group due to large #'s
European and African offspring were known as
STATE
Portugal - Brazil
Spain - Latin America
had control for over 300 years
difficulties
communication/travel
- couldn't have close regulations
- resulted in colonial officials carrying
out their own imperical policies
appointment of VICEROYS
- position known as governor-general
- mid-1500's
the Church
christianize the natives
Dominicans/Franciscans/Jesuits
gathered NA into villages
tried to control the lives of NA
good deeds
- set up hospitals, orphanages, and schools
Due to the sharp decline in native population, landowners needed a source of labor able to survive the harsh working conditions. As a result, they turned to importing Africans as slaves.
Decline of Native American population due to no immunity to diseases from the Eastern Hemisphere like measles and smallpox
The French and English were looking for a Northwest Passage, or an all water route to Asia
Jacques Cartier, Samuel Champlain, and Robert de la Salle explored the St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi River for France
The Dutch sent Henry Hudson to explore parts of North America and what is now New York.
French and Dutch Explorers
divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Spain and Portugal.
New World to Europe
Europe to New World
Ferdinand Magellan
- voyage to Asia through Western Hemisphere
- sailed down the coast of South America
- 1520 reached Pacific Ocean
- reached Philippines (killed by natives)
- first to circle the globe
Mestizos
MULATTOES
4) Use of [SUBSIDIES]
or payments for new industries or to improve transportation; building roads, bridges, and canals
3) Establishment of
difference in value b/t a nations IMPORTS and EXPORTS
balance is favorable when goods exported > goods imported
2) Idea of [MERCANTILISM]
a nation's power was determined by its supply of precious metals which helped lead to overseas trade
BALANCE OF TRADE
letter to King John I of Portugal
Full transcript