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Transcript of Russia
Inpatient treatment was known as “Labor-Prevention-Rehabilitation” camp.
Treatment also included the surgical implantation of “torpedoes” into the patients’ backs.
The torpedoes contained Antabuse-like drugs.
At times, due to lack of proper medical supplies, surrogate drugs were used as placebos and given to the patients.
Gave similar effects as the torpedoes
Alcoholics who refused treatment were labeled as “antisocial elements”. Current Treatment Approaches Following the 1917 Revolution, alcoholics who were drinking on the job or displaying public drunkenness were picked up by the militia (police) and registered with the government, and the word “alcoholic” was stamped on their domestic passports.
During the Soviet era alcoholics were sent to “sobering-up stations”
Family was made responsible to pay the involuntary detoxification for the “captured”. Current substance abuse and treatment includes the use of alternative and herbal medicine.
Detoxification, psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy such as antabuse are commonly used.
Treatment methods at the Narcology Hospital #17 include those that arouse the patient’s disgust for alcohol using Pavlovian behavioral conditioning methods and recoding (hypnosis).
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) emerged in Russia after perestroika (political movement for reformation) and meetings were held in secret. Many didn’t attend meeting due to the general mistrust towards organized activities and had difficulty embracing the “higher power” concept.
Some Russian clinicians have embraced the disease concept and the medical model of addiction but lack knowledge and understanding of the social and psychological aspects of addiction.
Professionals tend to view the family members of the abuser as helpless victims.
In the former Soviet Union as in other developing nations, alcohol and drug prevention efforts have not been viewed as an important priority of the central government. Define Acculturation Acculturation is a cultural modification of an individual, group, or people by adapting to or borrowing traits from another culture; also : a merging of cultures as a result of prolonged contact. (Merriam-Webster, 2011) The Red Scare The rounding up and deportation of several hundred immigrants of radical political views by the federal government in 1919 and 1920. This “scare” was caused by fears of subversion by communists in the United States after the Russian Revolution. ("Dictionary.com," 2005) The Red Scare greatly changed how American Society viewed Russian immigrants who wished to assimilate in the United States of America. Acculturation of Russian Immigrants to the USA For the most part Russian immigrants and their descendants have succeeded in assimilating into mainstream American life. However, there are some sub-groups which have eluded acculturation and maintained the traditional lifestyle they brought from the homeland.
These groups are known as the Orthodox Christian Old Believers and the Non- Orthodox Molokan Christian sect. They were located in cities and rural towns such as: San Francisco, Los Angeles, and even the backwoods of Alaska Acculturation Continued Although the Old Believers and the Molokans make up only a small minority of the Russian American communities today, it was also difficult for the vast majority who sought to assimilate. This is due to the negative perception of the American society had towards these Russian Americans. American society has had negative opinions of the Soviet Union, and as a result, they are constantly suspecting Russian Americans of being communists and even spies. Post World War II After World War II, conversely, another Red Scare once again struck the United States, this time even more widely publicized as a result of the congressional investigations led during the 1950s by the Senator Joseph McCarthy. Again Russians and all things Russian were associated with Communism, so Russian Americans were forced to maintain a low profile, and some felt obligated to renounce their heritage.
("Russian americans acculturation," 2007) Recent Russian American Acculturation Most recently, Russians in the United States have been linked to organized crime. With the break-up of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, and the radical change in that country's economy, a number of speculators have tried to take advantage of the situation. It is common to find references in today's mainstream American media to the dangers of the Russian mafia and, by implication, of all Russians. In todays American media, the dangers of the Russian mafia are widely publicized. These negative implications lead to American society viewing all Russians as dangerous, and thus makes their acculturation and assimilation much more difficult. Merriam-Webster. (2011). Merriam webster online dictionary. In Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/acculturation
Dictionary.com. (2005). Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/red scare
Russian americans acculturation and assimilation . (2007). Retrieved from http://www.allied-media.com/RussianMarket/russian_american_acculturation.html
Brothers, B. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.anglonautes.com/hist_us_19_20_ellis/us_ellis.htm Current Alcohol and Drug Use Former Soviet Union republics data on current capata consumption of alcohol is limited.
1950’s and 1970’s a group of Soviet researchers attempted to study the problem of alcoholism by conducting surveys.
Research was viewed as anti-Soviet propaganda and publication findings were censored. Consumption of Alcohol In 1985 capita consumption of alcohol beverages was 8 times higher than capita the per capita consumption had prior to the 1917 Revolution and 3 times higher than the consumption in the United States.
The rate of violent alcohol related crimes was 10.5 times as high as the United States
The reduction of of work productivity in the Russian due to alcoholic drinking is 6 times to the United States. Estimates 60% of the Russian workforce abuses alcohol
Out of 148 million people, there are approximately 15 million “chronic alcoholics” and the number of “heavy drinkers” is 3 to 4 times that. St. Petersburg 4,672,000 people there about 80,000 substance abusers, predominately alcoholics, and 60,000 suicides, many of them were alcohol related.
19,000 deaths from acute alcohol poisoning, 22,000 murders (80% were related alcohol related) Moscow 10,446,000 people about 145,000 patients were registered in the largest city’s narcological (alcohol and drug abuse) hospital in 1992.
95% were in the severe stage of the disease and 10% were women.
1 in every 10 was a teenager Collapse of the Soviet Union 1991 Abuse of other drugs: marijuana, cocaine, heroine, and prescription drugs.
Significant increase in sniffing inhalants such as glue, paint, and homemade synthetic drugs for adolescents. Russian The changes in Russian economy and the globalization of trade have have increased illegal drug traffic.
Due to the rapid rise of the Russian Mafia who have acquired the technology and chemicals for producing more drugs.
More than 2 million drug addicts “Russia has become one of the worlds largest great drug bazaars”. Continued… Cheap liquid heroin often costs little more than ice cream sandwich.
Children as young as 12 regularly experiment Chorynye (which means black) originates from the poorly guarded borders of Pakistan, Afghanistan and other countries in central Asia. Substance Abuse Among Former Soviets
in the United States About 20-25% of the Soviet population have alcohol drug problems
They use alcohol to cope with stress
Due to poor diet and medical care Russian immigrants arrive with serious medical problems to the US
EX: prolonged use of prescribed drugs that often result in abuse and dependency on prescribed drugs Due to the lack of education and prevention efforts in Russia young people are not familiar with with the danger consequences of ilegal drugs . ANCIENT RUSSIA In the early ninth century, a group of Scandinavian people known as the Varangians crossed the Baltic Sea into Eastern Europe.
Rurik a semi-legendary warrior, led his people into the nearby city of Novgorod on the Volkhov River in 862AD.
His successor Oleg, extended power southward and gained control over Kiev, a Slavic city. Oleg’s rule marked the first establishment of a unified dynastic state in that region.
By 989AD Oleg’s great-grandson Vladimir, was ruler of the new kingdom which had extended as far back as the Black Sea all the way to the Volga River.
Vladimir choose Greek Orthodoxy and not Islam for his people as the main religion because he did not believe they could live without liquor.
Yaroslav succeeded Vladimir and divided the kingdom among his children. A few decades after his death (1054AD), there was a power struggle which led to the division of the kingdom into smaller regional power center.
In 1147AD, Yuri Dolgorukiy, one the regional princes, held a feast at his hunting lodge overlooking the Moskva and Neglina Rivers. This party is remembered because it gives us the earliest mention of Moscow, a small settlement that soon became the pre-eminent city in modern day Russia. THE MONGULS AND THE EMERGENCE OF RUSSIA In the 13th century, Batu Khan of the Monguls invaded Kievan Rus’(1237AD) and destroyed all its major cities with the exceptions of Novgorod and Pskov. Though the ruling princes of the regions were not disposed, they were expected to send tributes to the Tatar state which later became Empire of the Golden Horde.
Two invasions where attempted by the Swedes and the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. Both where defeated by Alexander Nevsky a prince of Novgorod who earned his surname by defeating the Swedes on the Neva River.
The Tatars focused more on the Southwest thereby leaving some northeastern cities like Tver and Moscow to start gaining influence among its citizens. Then in the turn of the 14th century, the ruler of the Orthodox church was moved to the city of Moscow making it the spiritual capital of Russia.
Prince Dimitri Donskoy challenged (1380AD) the Tatars rule over Moscow and won but was overthrown two years later. Another century passed before Moscow was finally strong enough to overthrow the Tatars for good with the help of its new ruler Ivan the Great.
Ivan the Great subjugated all the rival cities and by the time he dismantled ties to Tatar, he had effectively taken control of the entire country. However it wasn’t until his grandson Ivan IV (aka Ivan the Terrible) that Russia became a unified state. He defeated the Tatars and gained control of the Golden Horde which also led to the colonization of Serbia. THE ROMANOVS The Romanovs ruled for 304 years until the Russian revolution brought an end to the Tsarist state. They maintained the status quo and centralized power but did little about the rapid economic and political changes taking place around them.
Peter the Great was the youngest son of Tsar Alexis’ second wife neither of which promised great things. When Alexis died in 1676, his eldest son Feodor took over but died in 1682. Peter the Great was then chosen over his other siblings as the new Tsar at age 10.
When Peter took over power, he decided to tour Europe and learn how to become a better ruler. His return to his country was met with lots of opposition due to the changes he imposed on his noblemen and the country as a whole.
He changed his title for Tsar to Emperor and in 1703, then moved the capital against the wishes of his advisors from Moscow which he hated to a newly built city known as St. Petersburg. He died in 1725 and is still known as one of the most controversial rulers in Russian history.
In 1762, wife to Peter III the grandson of Peter the great took over power after his death and became the most powerful sovereign in Europe. She founded the Hermitage Museum and commissioned buildings all over the country, founded academies, libraries and journals.
She later died in 1796 and was succeeded by her son Paul who was succeeded just five years later by his son Alexander I. NAPOLEON INVASION & THE PATH TO REVOLUTION Napoleon Bonaparte of France started a campaign to topple Russia in the summer of 1812. He gathered about half a million soldiers in towards his campaign but only came back with 10,000 soldiers, defeated not by the Russian army but by the blistering cold in an early winter in Russia.
Russian Tsars enjoyed autocratic rule but it came at the price of buying out the nobles by giving them autocratic rule over the serfs (a member of a servile feudal class bound to the land and subject to the will of its owner).
Russia expanded its borders to Afghanistan and china, and also acquired extensive territory on the pacific coast. Some newly founded port cities such as Vladivostok and Port Arthur open up chances for expanding trade and the construction of Trans-Siberian Railway which linked Russia to its new eastern territories.
The Japanese attack and defeat of 1905 forced the ruler Nicholas II to give up some power to reformers. Industrialization of major cities in the west and the development of the Batu oil fields brought in great numbers of Russian workers who began organizing political councils.
In 1912, Social democrats split into two camps: the Bolsheviks and the Menshiviks and after an long struggle, in 1920, the Bolsheviks became the victors and went on to rule the country. THE SOVIET ERA After the civil war which put the Bolsheviks in power led by Vladimir Lenin; Lenin created the New Economic Policy (NEP) which brought prosperity and helped reconstruct the country. This prosperity and its proprietor were short lived as Lenin died just four years after he started his mission.
Joseph Stalin took over shortly after Lenin and instantly started changing the structure of the country. The NEP was trashed and all farms were confiscated and turned into state run farms.
Religion was inhibited; churches were closed, destroyed or transformed for other uses.
By the 1930’s, Stalin had purged out all opposition and the country had become heavily regulated. Discipline was the rule of the day.
From the 1930’s to the late 1980’s Russia was torn apart by wars, poverty, corruption and general mismanagement of the country’s resources.
In 1990, the Soviet Union broke down when its constituents, declared independence and by the end of the year the Soviet flag which is completely red with a small design on the left top corner has been replaced by the New tricolor white, blue and red. Russian Immigration Three main wave of Russian Immigrants
The Purpose for Russians was the desire to have religious and political freedom
The states with the most Russian immigrants are Pennsylvania, New York, New jersey, Connecticut and Ohio The First wave From 1880 to 1917
Into California, Oregon, and Washington
Majority were religious Orthodox believers
Arrived for a variety but part because of the persecution, discrimination, fear, and economic problems
Homes were crowded with children and relatives not enough food, Russification
From 1800 to 1914
Poor peasants and persecuted Jews
Russian government implemented a policy to try stamp out different ethnic groups within the country The Second wave After the Bolshevik Revolution
From 1917 to 1945
Jews, left to escape religious and political persecution
Aristocratic classes, professionals, military officers, orthodox ministry and other opposed to soviet regime
Settled in New York's city’s lower east side The Third Wave From 1945 to 1987
Wanted the right to live and pray in Israel
In the late 1940 Russians were forced out of China
Relocated in Los Angeles , san Francisco, Sacramento, Portland and Seattle
Reunite with the family and to escape anti-Semitism Coming to America Jews travel to HAIS headquarters in Vienna
Then choose United States or Israel
If United States then they have to travel to Rome, where their papers process, and English class are offer.
Brighton Beach community
The edge of Brooklyn and on the Atlantic Ocean
Coming for various reasons including religious oppression and poverty, and now successful in America
*Photograph taken in Brooklyn’s Brighton Beach neighborhood, home to a large Russian Jewish immigrant community. Shows heritage and homeland, identity Immigration Destination Now Language was a barrier
Created jobs such as Restaurants, delis, bakeries, pushcarts, kosher restaurants, clothing design an other business
Education very important to these immigrants Usually Russians eat three times a day and prefer potatoes, which are eaten almost daily.
The three meals of the day in Russia are zavtrak, obed and uzhin. Breakfast - The first meal (Zavtrak)
Russian lunch - The main meal (Obed)
Dinner - The third meal (Uzhin) Folklore
Paintings Icon Paintings Andrei Rublev is a painting representing a person or an event related to religion
Icons are often repainted, because the content of them has always been more important that the style. It was believed that icons hold the power of the saints they were representing. Russian literature is considered to be among the most influential and developed in the world, with some of the most famous literary works belonging to it. Trinity Alexander Pushkin Dance Russian folk dance' was and still is a important part of their culture
Costumes were beautifully designed with great detail. Typically, the clothing for the dances was based on specific events, such as holidays, and would vary between these events. For women, they would wear a holiday headdress, an embroidered shirt, a belt, and an ornamented apron. Men would wear shirts, a belt, narrow pants, and high boots. The color red was incorporated in many of the dance costumes because the color is associated with beauty in the Russian tradition. Barynya
Troika A matryoshka doll, also known as Russian nesting doll, refers to a set of wooden dolls of decreasing size placed one inside the other.
A set of matryoshkas consist of a wooden figure which separates, top from bottom, to reveal a smaller figure of the same sort inside, which has, in turn, another figure inside of it, and so on. Types of Music:
Folk Music is certainly the oldest of them.
Hip Hop-Only a few Russian rap artists have achieved commercial success. The channel was launched in 1998 and became the first US television brand to localize in Russia. Russians live together—parents, grandparents, and grand children—in apartments. If not married, adults will continue living with their parents. It is also common for married couples to live with parents. Living in small apartments is conducive for Russian families to take care of each other.
Under the guidance of the Russian Society, the family has become the main social structure of society. Russian Families Russian men generally act in a way that Americans would describe as “gentleman-like.” They give up their seats on the metro, hold out a hand to help you off a bus, and hold doors open for women, even if they are strangers.
While Russian women dress nicely to find a husband, Russian men act politely in order to find a wife. Men Russians do not refer to women as “the weaker sex”—nor do they think women are weak at all—but instead women are “the prettier sex.”
Women are expected to dress conservatively.
One superstition is that when a women sits on the corner of a table, it means she will never get married.
If women are in an abusive relationship, the typical pattern for a Russian wife is to let her substance-abusing husband set the rules, follow his lead, withdraw from friends, and deny existing problems in the family. (Keep it on the down-low)
Women are supposed to stay at home while their husband works and goes out with friends. Russian wives are expected to do all household chores. Women Children are considered an essential part of a successful, Russian marriage.
Parents act as the main source in a child’s cultural developement
Taught that respect and discipline are very important. Children Religion plays a prominent role in the public and spiritual life of today’s Russia.
Russia adopted Christianity under Prince Vladimir of Kiev in 988, in a ceremony patterned on Byzantine rites. This lead to the rise of the Russian Orthodox Church.
The majority of believers belong to the Orthodox Christian denomination. The Role of Religion in Russia The majority of former soviets grew up without any religious or spiritual beliefs. This is the result of the atheist state propaganda that attempted to keep the Soviet people from openly practicing their different religions.
As a result, many Russian Orthodox grandmothers kept their religious icons, Bibles and candles hidden.
Although Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) emerged after perestroika (a.k.a. period of reconstruction and openness) these meetings were still held in secret because the higher power viewed it as quasi-religious by the Communist regime. Religion and Spiritual Beliefs The tartar invasion during the 13th century failed to break the Russian Church.
As a result it made a great spiritual and moral contribution to the restoration of the political unity of Russia.
After elevating Bishop Iona of Ryazan to the cathedra of all Russia in 1448, the Russian Orthodox Church was made autocephalous.
Religious splits and the rise of "old believers" were the result to Nikon’s, the Patriarch of Moscow and Russia (1652-1658), attempts to modify church rites and amend the church service books. The History of Religion **In 1990, a series of laws were passed on the freedom of religion allowing the religious communities to step up in their activities. In the late 1980s major changes were made in the relationship between the state and the church in hope to reconstruct the country’s economic and political system.
Now, the government has even sought church advise on many critical decisions. On January 26 1918, the council of People’s Commissars (the govt) separated the church from the state and school.
As a result, all church organizations lost their right to own property. State and Church The country has over 5,000 Russian Orthodox Churches
Moslem- 3,000 associations
Seventh Day Adventists- 120
Old Believers- over 200
Roman Catholics- 200
Unified Evangelical Lutherans- 39 Religion Today The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (in Moscow) This is the tallest Orthodox Christian Church in the world.
Can accommodate up to 10,000 people.
The Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church was demolished in 1931 but later restored. Now, it is seen as a visible symbol of Faith, national glory, honor and a witness to many historical events Spiritual leader: Dalai Lama Kalmyk Buddhist Temple Old Believers Church
in Gzhel, Moscow Oblast 3.794 million sq miles 6.593 million sq miles Dutch siblings from the island of Marken, holding religious tracts. Ellis Island Immigration Museum TITLE: Emigrants coming to the "Land of Promise" TITLE: New York - Welcome to the land of freedom - An ocean steamer passing the Statue of Liberty: By Brown Brothers, ca. 1908
Immigrant children, Ellis Island, New York. Tartars RELIGION: Islam
LANGUAGE:Arabic For centuries, there was tension between ethnic Russians and Tatars. As a result, the Tatars suffered from discrimination, which affected how they came to interact with Russian society. Bashkir RELIGION: Islam
LANGUAGE:Arabic Bashkirs traditionally practiced agriculture, cattle-rearing and bee-keeping. The nomadic Bashkirs wandered either the mountains or the steppes, herding cattle. Chuvash RELIGION:Islam/Christianity
LANGUAGE:Chuvash The Chuvash traditionally lived in small villages. In village communities, farms consisted of kilkarti
Kilkarti Russian-type bathhouse, granary, toolhouse, barn for dry feed for animals, stable, cow house, and fowl house. Russian LANGUAGE:Russian
RELIGION:Russian Orthodox Christian Most families live in small apartments, often with 2 or 3 generations sharing little space.
Russians are proud of their country
•This affinity for the group and the collective spirit remains today. It is seen in everyday life, for example most Russians will join a table of strangers rather than eat alone in a restaurant. Soviet Union Commonwealth of Independent States Ukrainian RELIGION: Ukrainian Orthodox Church
LANGUAGE: Ukrainian The traditional Ukrainian domestic unit is a single family. Elderly parents eventually lived with the child who inherited their property.