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Solar Energy

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Atchaya Senthilkumar

on 24 October 2013

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Transcript of Solar Energy

Solar Energy
J.A.M Eco-Engineering Co.
Solar Heater PMI!
Originally the solar heater was designed to be shaped in a hexagonal form with the solar panel placed in the middle which allowed to utilize most of the sun’s solar radiation with 6 sides of the hexagon covered in aluminum to reflect the solar rays towards the solar panel.

Another concept was to create a square shaped box with the insides covered in aluminum foil to allow the rays to reflect and towards the solar panel and also absorb the heat produced by the solar radiation. The cans would be placed progressing sideways with the solar panel seated on the bottom left hand corner.
The design will accommodate the solar panel placed on another cardboard piece in an angle where the top of the panel is stuck to the cardboard to produce a final product where the absorption of the sun’s energy is made uncomplicated when seated next to a window. With the motor/fan accompanied with the solar panel, it will provide the motor with the needed energy to release the heated air into the room.
Affects of the solar radiation on the amount of the thermal energy produced...
Cardboard box
Aluminium foil
Solar educational kit (provides solar panel, fan/motor)
Black spray paint
Plastic Jar
Clear plastic
Little piece of tissue paper
Black paint
Paint brush
Aviation snips
Silicone gun
2. Then we cut
the smaller side flaps of the box.

3. Following this, wrap the alumiuim foil around the inside remembering to also cover the larger sides of the flap. This is in order to reflect the sun's radiation easily onto the solar panel resulting in more absorption of the solar radiation.
4. Then we began on our construction for our principle element of the solar heater. The cans that we had gathered assist in absorbing and storing the heat radiated by the sun to provide warmth in the room. For this we first cut the top using the aviation snips and then use a round drill bit to drill the top off.

5. Following this, heat the glue gun with the glue stick inside and then use it to glue the rims of the cans together in twos.
Furthermore another notion and conclusive design in mind was to develop a solar heater inside the form of a rectangle cardboard box with the use of cans to absorb and store the solar radiation from the sun. The cans placed in rows going up with holes drilled onto the side with the concept of a snake, so the holes will allow the cold air to rise and heat through the squiggly like snake pattern through the cans.......
Solar Panel
Aluminium covered sides
Design 1
Design 2
Design 3
Solar Panel
Cans- going sideways
Aluminium covered sides
Fan/motor to release the heated air back into the room
Cans- going in snake like/ squiggly pattern upwards due to the notion that heated air always rises up!
Aluminium covered sides
Solar Panel stuck on an extra piece of cardboard towards the foreground to achieve better solar power from the radiation!
Front View of Final Design
Performance and fundamental function of the Final design!
Solar powered products
8. After painting the back sides of the box, we laid it out to dry. When the paint was dry, we brought it back to provide the box with an extra coat of black paint to provide a neat and constant layer on the box. In parallel to this using a glove and a workshop apron, black spray paint was sprayed onto the cans. This process developing the cans to be black allows the solar radiation to be absorbed and stored providing more warmth and heat when released back into the room.
9. Later using a marker and the lid of the jar that we had collected, we traced the outline onto the outside of the cardboard at the top.
10. Then using a hole saw, the traced circle was cut into a hole. This hole was to accommodate the jar's lid which would later function to assist the fan/motor.
Currently with advancements in solar technology, many companies have been constantly assisting residents with the installments of these solar panels throughout Australia. Although this can result in many beneficial factors for the resident in regards to electricity and gas bills, however the prices for these installments can be very expensive!
many have endeavored to develop a more efficient and cost effective method in solving the financial factors that may trouble some...

As the investigations for alternatives of non renewable and polluting fossil fuels continues, a source of alternative energy that might provide to the needs and growing concerns for energy use and environmental sustainability has been discovered.

Solar energy one of the most untapped renewable energy resource provides for such concerns.
So how does the sun's energy power our planet?

Solar radiation in terms of universal elucidation defines as the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun. Passing through many layers of the sun and through various processes the energy emitted from the sun then washes across the atmosphere of the bodies in the solar system.
As it reaches the Earth's surface, the atmosphere filters some particles of the ultraviolet rays while allowing passages to a portion of that energy. Following the passage the energy bounces off of the surface and then is reflected back by the atmosphere. This bounce of energy allows the absorption of solar radiation on our Earth resulting in our planet to be heated.

However there are various factors to observe that affects the amount of solar radiation:
geographic location
time of day
time of year
local landscape
local climatic conditions
According to Geoscience Australia, Australia's geographical location is the most benefited by the solar radiation with clearly evident statistics stating Australia has the highest average solar radiation per square meter of any continent in the world.

However the annual solar radiation falling on Australia is approx 58 million petajoules (PJ) approx 10 000 times Australia's annual energy consumption.

In comparison to the solar energy used in counties mainly providing energy for small applications such as water heating the energy use only accounts for 0.1% of total primary energy consumption in Australia as well as globally.

Therefore there has been many developments towards government policies that allows for more outlook in the solar energy market in order to accelerate the commercialization and evolution of solar energy in Australia.
It is been discovered that almost most of the solar energy resources are greater in the northwest and center of Australia, however these areas are inaccessible according to the national electricity grid, resulting in major requirements of investments in infrastructure to access those solar energy resources.

In compliance with predictions of solar radiation use in Australia, there has been an estimated projection to increase by 5.9% per year to 24 PJ in 2029-30.

In regards to the solar thermal technology developed, there has been a profound research in hybrid systems with fossils fuels power plants and with appropriate storage to have the potential and provide electricity generation. Through these hybrid systems, electricity can be provided to remote towns and mining centers where it is investigated to be high of cost for alternative electricity.
Moreover research into photovoltaic systems have also been observed resulting in the use of such systems to be beneficial to off grid electricity generation applications including for remote communities.
Solar energy technologies for electricity generation
Although there are various types of solar receivers innovated for instance: photovoltaic systems, solar thermal heaters, solar air conditioning, combined heat and power systems; passive solar heating is focused in our project. This type of heating allows the solar energy to be used to heat rooms directly, through the creation of products that have the potential to absorb and store the solar radiation.
Passive solar heating is beneficial in an ample of ways in order to heat rooms during the colder climates and in parallel to save energy and costs from electricity and gas.

The use of passive solar heating requires mainly 2 necessary elements for its purpose: a north facing window that allows the sunlight to pass through the room and some sort of storage in this case the solar heater, to absorb and store the heat radiated by the sun.
some have also developed ways to construct their own solar heater to assist in providing warmth and lesser heating bills during colder climates.

Below are some unique designs that have been innovated currently using recyclable materials to resolve electricity and heating bills including concerns for environment sustainability through the use of passive solar heating.
less electricity and heating bills.
more affordable/ cost effective
clean energy
competent heat absorber- due to black cans incorporated in the design accompanied with insulation
light weight
cost affective to make/use
heats the room quicker
hand made craftsmanship
eliminates costs of power consumption and maintenance
still works in winter (sunny winter days)
Heating your home with a solar heating system can significantly reduce your winter fuel bills.
don't need to be dependent on fossils fuels such as oil, propane and natural gas to heat your home.
reduces the amount of air pollution and greenhouse gases that result from your use of fossil fuels such as oil, propane, and other petroleum products.
bulky/maybe too big in height
visually unappealing
doesn't work without enough amount of sunlight
maybe a blockage in the room/window
Firstly collect all the materials needed for the project...
cans x16
plastic jar
...collect all the materials listed!
cut the small side flaps
use a hole saw!
use glue stick and glue gun!
aluminium foil wrapped from the flaps towards the inside of the cardboard box!
After wrapping aluminium foil...
cut using aviation snips, then drill the top off..
using the hot glue gun, glue the rims like so...
glue them in pairs and then line them upwards in the solar heater.
6. After lining them upwards in the solar heater use a marker to mark the flow of the air from the bottom to the top in the center of the can. This is to allow the drilling process for the holes to be explicit.
7. In parallel to this process, wearing a workshop apron to avoid any spills of paint onto our school uniform was necessary while we used black paint to paint the back sides of cardboard box.. This is to give it a neutral code and also to increase the attraction of solar radiation towards the box.
traced and then cut into a hole!
11. When this was ready, using a drill and small drill bits, smaller holes were drilled onto the lid of the jar to act as ventilation to support the motor/fan to release the heater air into the room.
12. Then the jar was cut into a smaller cross section leaving just under a third of the jar bit. This allows the air to only flow through the jar and out through the motor.

lid of jar with smaller holes drilled.
the wire is pulled through a slightly larger hole so it can be connected to the solar panel..
13. while drilling the smaller holes, a slightly larger one was also drilled to allow the wire to go through the hole and to be connected to the solar panel.

14. Following this to create a space for the fan to be placed, a number of slits were created in the center of the lid. Then the fan/motor was carefully placed through the hole in the center while slits held the motor in place.

15. Later these components were cautiously placed in the box, remembering to avoid any harm to the wired parts near the motor. During this the lid and the smaller part of the jar was attached together where one cam through from the inside and the other from outside.
motor component attached..
17. Then returning to the cans where we had marked the holes in the center, using the round drill bit, we drilled a hole in the middle on the side of the cans. This is where the air will flow through when heater rising upwards as seen in our design of squiggly like patter.

18. As we found out that the size of the air flow should at least correlate to the size of the motor in order to the produce a beneficial amount of heated air, the size drilled was almost 2cm in radius achieving the set principle above.

19. Following this using a marker, mark the place on the outside of the cardboard box corresponding to the bottom most hole on the can towards the cardboard. This is where the cold air will enter which will when heated rise upwards through the cans. This parallel round hole will then be cut and lightly taped with a tissue paper to allow the cold air to flow through the bottom however it will also secure the air from flowing back out.
20. Later to create the squiggly like pattern that will allow the air flow through all the cans, we had to place all the cans which are in pairs upwards correlating with the patterned drills we created and then using silicone to stick all of them together.

...Finally the product will be glazed with clear plastic in the front to allow the solar radiation to pass through..powering the solar panel and heating the cold air. The heated air then rises through the squiggly pattern incorporated in the cans and through the motor into the room resulting in comfortable warmth room.
16. For the placement of the solar panel, we used the side flaps which was cut previously to join together and stick it using a hot glue gun towards the front of the box in one corner. This allows to alleviate the solar panel upwards from just placing it in the middle resulting in the absorption of the most amount of solar radiation.
J.A.M Eco-Engineering Co.
Final product- Solar Heater!!
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